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2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (3) ◽  
pp. 461-473
Sintiani Perdani ◽  
Didik Ari Wibowo ◽  
Desmira Desmira

Around 35% of the total utilization of coconuts at this time is still not fully utilized. Thermoelectric is a technology that converts heat energy directly into electrical energy or converts electrical energy into heating and cooling energy. Data retrieval using two multimeters and an electric thermometer, data collection was carried out for 2 minutes. From the test results, this tool can produce an average voltage of 10.05 Volt for 200gram coconut shells, an average current of 0.99 Ampere and an average power of 13.84 Watts and can fully charge the battery up to 3 hours 33 minutes, while for 300 grams produces an average voltage of 10.59 Volts for 300gram coconut shells, an average current of 0.995 Ampere and an average power of 13.56 Watts and the battery can be fully charged in about 3 hours 36 minutes, while a coconut shell weighing 400 grams can produces an average voltage of 10.94 Volts, an average current of 1 Ampere and an average power of 13.70 Watts and the battery can be fully charged in about 3 hours 30 minutes. The more coconut shells used for combustion, the hotter the temperature and the faster the voltage and current are obtained, but with a note that the maximum temperature limit of the thermoelectric is T not more than 200o C. Keywords: Coconut Shell, Thermoelectric, Electrical Energy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Meifu Liang ◽  
Ningning Zhao ◽  
Yamei Li

In order to understand the characteristic data of athletes’ training load, a method based on nine-axis sensor was proposed. Twenty-seven male college athletes were tested twice with a time interval of more than 48 hours. In part 1, participants take the 1 Repetition Maximum (1RM) test. The results show that maximum strength is one of the basic factors to develop the output power of athletes. In the process of skeletal muscle contraction, the curve of speed, force, and power is closely related. When the external load is 10%∼70%, the average power increases with the increase in the average force, it increases with the decrease in the average speed, and at 70%1RM, the average power reaches the peak and then decreases at an inflection point. It is proved that the accurate weight ratio of strength training is the basis of winning athletes, the focus of high level physical coach, and the premise of scientific sports training.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Stefan Nedelcu ◽  
Kishan Thodkar ◽  
Christofer Hierold

AbstractCustomizable, portable, battery-operated, wireless platforms for interfacing high-sensitivity nanoscale sensors are a means to improve spatiotemporal measurement coverage of physical parameters. Such a platform can enable the expansion of IoT for environmental and lifestyle applications. Here we report a platform capable of acquiring currents ranging from 1.5 nA to 7.2 µA full-scale with 20-bit resolution and variable sampling rates of up to 3.125 kSPS. In addition, it features a bipolar voltage programmable in the range of −10 V to +5 V with a 3.65 mV resolution. A Finite State Machine steers the system by executing a set of embedded functions. The FSM allows for dynamic, customized adjustments of the nanosensor bias, including elevated bias schemes for self-heating, measurement range, bandwidth, sampling rate, and measurement time intervals. Furthermore, it enables data logging on external memory (SD card) and data transmission over a Bluetooth low energy connection. The average power consumption of the platform is 64.5 mW for a measurement protocol of three samples per second, including a BLE advertisement of a 0 dBm transmission power. A state-of-the-art (SoA) application of the platform performance using a CNT nanosensor, exposed to NO2 gas concentrations from 200 ppb down to 1 ppb, has been demonstrated. Although sensor signals are measured for NO2 concentrations of 1 ppb, the 3σ limit of detection (LOD) of 23 ppb is determined (1σ: 7 ppb) in slope detection mode, including the sensor signal variations in repeated measurements. The platform’s wide current range and high versatility make it suitable for signal acquisition from resistive nanosensors such as silicon nanowires, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and other 2D materials. Along with its overall low power consumption, the proposed platform is highly suitable for various sensing applications within the context of IoT.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 624
Jinhyuk Kim ◽  
Jungwoo Lee

We recently proposed an analytical design method of Langevin transducers for therapeutic ultrasound treatment by conducting parametric study to estimate the effect of compression force on resonance characteristics. In this study, experimental investigations were further performed under various electrical conditions to observe the acoustic power of the fully equipped transducer and to assess its heat-related bioeffect. Thermal index (TI) tests were carried out to examine temperature rise and thermal damage induced by the acoustic energy in fatty porcine tissue. Acoustic power emission, TI values, temperature characteristics, and depth/size of thermal ablation were measured as a function of transducer’s driving voltage. By exciting the transducer with 300 Vpp sinusoidal continuous waveform, for instance, the average power was 23.1 W and its corresponding TI was 4.1, less than the 6 specified by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guideline. The maximum temperature and the depth of the affected site were 74.5 °C and 19 mm, respectively. It is shown that thermal ablation is likely to be more affected by steep heat surge for a short duration rather than by slow temperature rise over time. Hence, the results demonstrate the capability of our ultrasonic transducer intended for therapeutic procedures by safely interrogating soft tissue and yet delivering enough energy to thermally stimulate the tissue in depth.

Machines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 57
Daniele Esposito ◽  
Jessica Centracchio ◽  
Emilio Andreozzi ◽  
Sergio Savino ◽  
Gaetano D. Gargiulo ◽  

Voluntary hand movements are usually impaired after a cerebral stroke, affecting millions of people per year worldwide. Recently, the use of hand exoskeletons for assistance and motor rehabilitation has become increasingly widespread. This study presents a novel hand exoskeleton, designed to be low cost, wearable, easily adaptable and suitable for home use. Most of the components of the exoskeleton are 3D printed, allowing for easy replication, customization and maintenance at a low cost. A strongly underactuated mechanical system allows one to synergically move the four fingers by means of a single actuator through a rigid transmission, while the thumb is kept in an adduction or abduction position. The exoskeleton’s ability to extend a typical hypertonic paretic hand of stroke patients was firstly tested using the SimScape Multibody simulation environment; this helped in the choice of a proper electric actuator. Force-myography was used instead of the standard electromyography to voluntarily control the exoskeleton with more simplicity. The user can activate the flexion/extension of the exoskeleton by a weak contraction of two antagonist muscles. A symmetrical master–slave motion strategy (i.e., the paretic hand motion is activated by the healthy hand) is also available for patients with severe muscle atrophy. An inexpensive microcontroller board was used to implement the electronic control of the exoskeleton and provide feedback to the user. The entire exoskeleton including batteries can be worn on the patient’s arm. The ability to provide a fluid and safe grip, like that of a healthy hand, was verified through kinematic analyses obtained by processing high-framerate videos. The trajectories described by the phalanges of the natural and the exoskeleton finger were compared by means of cross-correlation coefficients; a similarity of about 80% was found. The time required for both closing and opening of the hand exoskeleton was about 0.9 s. A rigid cylindric handlebar containing a load cell measured an average power grasp force of 94.61 N, enough to assist the user in performing most of the activities of daily living. The exoskeleton can be used as an aid and to promote motor function recovery during patient’s neurorehabilitation therapy.

Nanomaterials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 232
Luka Hribar ◽  
Peter Gregorčič ◽  
Matej Senegačnik ◽  
Matija Jezeršek

In this paper, we investigate the influence of the following parameters: pulse duration, pulse repetition rate, line-to-line and pulse-to-pulse overlaps, and scanning strategy on the ablation of AISI 316L steel and CuZn37 brass with a nanosecond, 1064-nm, Yb fiber laser. The results show that the material removal rate (MRR) increases monotonically with pulse duration up to the characteristic repetition rate (f0) where pulse energy and average power are maximal. The maximum MRR is reached at a repetition rate that is equal or slightly higher as f0. The exact value depends on the correlation between the fluence of the laser pulses and the pulse repetition rate, as well as on the material properties of the sample. The results show that shielding of the laser beam by plasma and ejected material plays an important role in reducing the MRR. The surface roughness is mainly influenced by the line-to-line and the pulse-to-pulse overlaps, where larger overlap leads to lower roughness. Process optimization indicates that while operating with laser processing parameters resulting in the highest MRR, the best ratio between the MRR and surface roughness appears at ~50% overlap of the laser pulses, regardless of the material being processed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 91
Mohsin Murad ◽  
Imran A. Tasadduq ◽  
Pablo Otero

We propose an effective, low complexity and multifaceted scheme for peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) reduction in the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system for underwater acoustic (UWA) channels. In UWA OFDM systems, PAPR reduction is a challenging task due to low bandwidth availability along with computational and power limitations. The proposed scheme takes advantage of XOR ciphering and generates ciphered Bose–Chaudhuri–Hocquenghem (BCH) codes that have low PAPR. This scheme is based upon an algorithm that computes several keys offline, such that when the BCH codes are XOR-ciphered with these keys, it lowers the PAPR of BCH-encoded signals. The subsequent low PAPR modified BCH codes produced using the chosen keys are used in transmission. This technique is ideal for UWA systems as it does not require additional computational power at the transceiver during live transmission. The advantage of the proposed scheme is threefold. First, it reduces the PAPR; second, since it uses BCH codes, the bit error rate (BER) of the system improves; and third, a level of encryption is introduced via XOR ciphering, enabling secure communication. Simulations were performed in a realistic UWA channel, and the results demonstrated that the proposed scheme could indeed achieve all three objectives with minimum computational power.

Mingyuan Ren ◽  
Huijing Yang ◽  
Beining Zhang ◽  
Guoxu Zheng

This paper constructs and simulates the interface circuit of a temperature sensor based on SMIC 0.18 [Formula: see text]m CMOS. The simulation results show that when the power supply voltage is 1.8 V, the chopper op-amp gain is 89.44 dB, the low-frequency noise is 71.83 nV/Hz,[Formula: see text] and the temperature coefficient of the core temperature sensitive circuit is 1.7808 mV/[Formula: see text]C. The sampling rate of 10-bit SAR ADC was 10 kS/s, effective bit was 9.0119, SNR was 59.3256 dB, SFDR was 68.7091 dB, and THD was −62.5859 dB. The measurement range of temperature sensor interface circuit is −50[Formula: see text]C[Formula: see text]C, the relative temperature measurement error is ±0.47[Formula: see text]C, the resolution is 0.2[Formula: see text]C/LSB, and the overall average power consumption is 434.9 [Formula: see text]W.

Gregor F. H. Indorf ◽  
Graeme G Scott ◽  
Malte A. Ennen ◽  
Pierre Forestier-Colleoni ◽  
David Haddock ◽  

Abstract The interaction of very intense and ultrashort laser pulses with solid targets is a topic that has attracted a large amount of interest in science and applications. This interest is boosted by the large progress made in the development of high repetition rate, high-power laser systems. With the significant increase in average power, there is concern about how to deal with ablated debris that may lead to contamination and damage during interaction experiments with solid targets. This issue is also highly relevant in experiments that include plasma mirrors. These are often employed to increase the contrast ratio of the intense laser pulse to unwanted laser pre-pulses from the amplifier chain and/or the background of amplified spontaneous emission. For this reason, the present work investigates the mass ejected from the target into vacuum for different conditions, particularly those present when plasma mirrors are introduced. The total amount of ablated mass can be reduced by making use of a temporally controlled plasma expansion that enhances the plasma mirror reflectivity. In this way, high intensity laser interaction experiments can be carried out with efficient and clean plasma mirrors significantly reducing the degradation of the laser optics and plasma diagnostics placed near the interaction.

Yangyu Liu ◽  
Xue Cao ◽  
AnHua Xian ◽  
Guangmiao Liu ◽  
Wei zhou ◽  

Abstract We demonstrate stable continuous-wave mode-locking (CWML) pulses around 1645nm by employing the home-made Er:YAG ceramic. By using a fiber laser and semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) with modulation depth of 1.2%, we get ML pulses with the output average power up to 815 mW, the pulse width shortened as ~4 ps, and the peak power of 1.8 kW. With the SESAM of modulation depth of 2.4%, the second-order harmonic ML pulses were also obtained. As far as we know, this is the first report of CWML from Er3+-doped ceramics and also the shortest pulse duration in Er3+-doped solid-state oscillators.

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