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2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-20
Byron Marshall ◽  
Michael Curry ◽  
Robert E. Crossler ◽  
John Correia

Survey items developed in behavioral Information Security (InfoSec) research should be practically useful in identifying individuals who are likely to create risk by failing to comply with InfoSec guidance. The literature shows that attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions drive compliance behavior and has influenced the creation of a multitude of training programs focused on improving ones’ InfoSec behaviors. While automated controls and directly observable technical indicators are generally preferred by InfoSec practitioners, difficult-to-monitor user actions can still compromise the effectiveness of automatic controls. For example, despite prohibition, doubtful or skeptical employees often increase organizational risk by using the same password to authenticate corporate and external services. Analysis of network traffic or device configurations is unlikely to provide evidence of these vulnerabilities but responses to well-designed surveys might. Guided by the relatively new IPAM model, this study administered 96 survey items from the Behavioral InfoSec literature, across three separate points in time, to 217 respondents. Using systematic feature selection techniques, manageable subsets of 29, 20, and 15 items were identified and tested as predictors of non-compliance with security policy. The feature selection process validates IPAM's innovation in using nuanced self-efficacy and planning items across multiple time frames. Prediction models were trained using several ML algorithms. Practically useful levels of prediction accuracy were achieved with, for example, ensemble tree models identifying 69% of the riskiest individuals within the top 25% of the sample. The findings indicate the usefulness of psychometric items from the behavioral InfoSec in guiding training programs and other cybersecurity control activities and demonstrate that they are promising as additional inputs to AI models that monitor networks for security events.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
Ioannis Glykas ◽  
Panagiotis Velissarios Stamatakos ◽  
Charalampos Fragkoulis ◽  
Mohamad Moussa ◽  
Athanasios Papatsoris ◽  

Background Since COVID–19 was declared a pandemic on March 11, 2020, health care systems worldwide have been under significant strain. Although urology is not on the frontline of care for patients with COVID-19, every practicing urologist has been affected by the global outbreak. The objective of this review is to evaluate the impact of COVID–19 pandemic on urology residency training programs. Methods We reviewed the current evidence on urology residency training during the COVID-19 pandemic. Relevant databases (MEDLINE, Scopus, Cochrane Library) were searched for articles published to June 2021 that included residents’ or directors’ opinions on their residency training programs during the COVID-19 crisis. Results The literature search identified 72 articles. Fifteen studies including more than 2500 residents were eligible for inclusion in the analysis. During the pandemic, learning activities carried out by urology residents have been extensively affected. Worldwide, operation volume has decreased, especially for procedures in which residents were directly involved. Similarly, there has been a decline in most academic activities, and many studies have reported the negative impact on residents’ mental well-being and lifestyle. On the other hand, the lockdown provided an opportunity to review the current training system and to increase the implementation of tools such as telemedicine and smart-learning surgical skill training programs. Conclusion The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in significant changes in urology residency programs worldwide, which have had a negative impact on surgical training and academic activities. Residents’ well-being and mental health have also been put at risk. However, this unprecedented situation has also generated new online learning modalities and technological innovations in the field of training in urology.

Jitin Bajaj ◽  
Yad Ram Yadav

AbstractEndoscopic spine surgeries provide distinct advantages and is therefore a viable alternative to open or microscopic techniques. Indian surgeons have shown their expertise from craniovertebral junction to lumbosacral spine with these techniques. Many novel approaches like endoscopic transcervical, partial corpectomy, and others have been designed, and many technological innovations for these surgeries have been made. With different training programs attracting both native and international surgeons, the future of endoscopic spine surgery is bright.

Retos ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 44 ◽  
pp. 756-762
Manuel García Sillero ◽  
Constantino Peruzzi ◽  
Iván Chulvi-Medrano ◽  
Javier Peña ◽  
Manuel De Diego ◽  

  Purpose: This research aimed to compare the effect of two intervention programs using stable or unstable surfaces on speed and hitting distance in golf stroke/swing. Methods: Twenty-five elite golfers (19.20 ± 1.77 years, height = 181.12 ± 4 cm, body mass = 75.35 ± 5.83; kg, BMI = 22.71 ± 1.76 kg.m2, handicap: 2.49 ± 2.56) were randomly assigned to two different 8-week training programs based on unstable surface (n = 12) or stable surface training (n=13). Measurements of carry distance and club head speed were performed using the Trackman Golf® system, with each participant executing five swings and obtaining the average and best distance. Results: No significant changes (p< 0.05) in the club head speed or carry distance were found after the intervention in the stable surface or the unstable surface training group. Conclusions: The proposed intervention using instability surfaces does not provide any additional benefit to training on stable surfaces in the specific performance of the stroke in elite golfers. Resumen. Objetivo: Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo comparar el efecto de dos programas de intervención que utilizan superficies estables o inestables sobre la velocidad y la distancia de golpeo en el golpeo/swing de golf. Métodos: Veinticinco golfistas de élite (19,20 ± 1,77 años, altura = 181,12 ± 4 cm, peso corporal = 75,35 ± 5,83; kg, IMC = 22,71 ± 1,76 kg.m2, hándicap: 2,49 ± 2,56) fueron asignados aleatoriamente a dos programas de entrenamiento diferentes de 8 semanas de duración basados en superficies inestables (n = 12) o en superficies estables (n = 13). Las mediciones de la distancia de golpeo y la velocidad de la cabeza del palo se realizaron con el sistema Trackman Golf®, ejecutando cada participante cinco swings y obteniendo la media y la mejor distancia. Resultados: No se encontraron cambios significativos (p< 0,05) en la velocidad de la cabeza del palo ni en la distancia de golpeo después de la intervención en el grupo de entrenamiento en superficie estable o en el de superficie inestable. Conclusiones: La intervención propuesta utilizando superficies de inestabilidad no aporta ningún beneficio adicional al entrenamiento en superficies estables en el rendimiento específico del golpe en golfistas de élite.

2022 ◽  
Camelia Nadia Bran ◽  
Editha Margareta Coşarbă ◽  

In contemporary society, higher education students are confronted more and more with an avalanche of paradigms, models, theories, wider or narrower subject specializations, online learning, face-to-face activities, blended learning, knowledge assessment, competencies assessments, etc. A possible solution for preventing the negative effects of this academic burden is to develop students’ metacognitive competencies. We have developed a study on 133 participants, students in initial or continuous teacher training programs, whose aim was to the level of interrelations between academic exhaustion and the constant usage of regulation strategies and care for the body. A three-section questionnaire was applied using Google form. To test the hypothesis, we have conducted multiple comparisons between and within groups. The descriptive statistics show that the students enrolled in teacher training programs at „Aurel Vlaicu” the University of Arad declared themselves as constantly practicing reflection, planning, monitoring, and evaluation strategies when solving their academic tasks.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Bernardo N. Ide ◽  
Amanda P. Silvatti ◽  
Moacir Marocolo ◽  
Clarcson P. C. Santos ◽  
Bruno V. C. Silva ◽  

This conceptual review investigates whether functional training (FT) is a different approach from traditional strength, power, flexibility, and endurance (aerobic or cardiorespiratory) training already adopted in the physical training plan of professional, recreational athletes, healthy, and older adults. The 20 most recent papers published involving FT were searched in the PubMed/Medline database. Definition, concepts, benefits, and the exercises employed in FT programs were analyzed. The main results were: (a) there is no agreement about a universal definition for FT; (b) FT programs aim at developing the same benefits already induced by traditional training programs; (c) exercises employed are also the same. The inability to define FT makes the differentiation from traditional training programs difficult. Physical training programs can be easily described and classified as strength, power, flexibility, endurance, and the specific exercises employed (e.g., traditional resistance training, ballistic exercises, plyometrics and Olympic-style weightlifting, continuous and high-intensity interval training). This apt description and classification may provide consistent and clear communication between students, coaches, athletes, and sports scientists. Based on the current evidence and to avoid confusion and misconceptions, we recommend that the terms FT, high-intensity FT, and functional fitness training no longer describe any physical training program.

Hamza Marzouki ◽  
Ibrahim Ouergui ◽  
Bilel Cherni ◽  
Karim Ben Ayed ◽  
Ezdine Bouhlel

This study compared the effects of different sprint ball-based training programs on fitness-related performances in youth soccer players. Forty male players (age: 15.2 ± 0.6 yrs) participated in a short-term (8 weeks) randomized parallel fully controlled training study, with pre-to-post measurements. Players were randomly assigned to 3 sprint ball-based training groups: training with combined sprint (performing linear and change of direction sprints; CST), or using linear sprint (LST), or performing sprint with change of direction (CODT) and to a control group (CONT). Pre- and post-training players completed a test battery involving linear sprinting (10 and 20 m, and flying 10 m), 505 test (COD), 15 m test with ball (CODB), countermovement jump test (CMJ test) and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). All physical performance’ variables improved after the training intervention (all p < 0.05; ES ≥ 0.2). No main effect of groups was observed in linear sprinting, CMJ and VO2max (p > 0.05; ES < 0.2). A training group main effect was found (p < 0.0001; ES = 0.50) for COD with CODT induced better performance than LST and CONT (all p <0.0001; ES > 0.8). Also, a training group main effect (p = 0.009; ES = 0.35) was found for CODB with CODT elicited better performance than LST and CONT (all p = 0.001; ES > 0.80). Our findings suggest that ball-based training programs were more effective to improve fitness levels in youth players during the in-season period and that CODT modality was more effective to improve COD and CODB performances.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Audrey E. Hu ◽  
Robert Fontaine ◽  
Reina Turcios-Ruiz ◽  
Aisha A. Abedi ◽  
Seymour Williams ◽  

Abstract Background Field epidemiology training programs (FETPs) have trained field epidemiologists who strengthen global capacities for surveillance and response to public health threats. We describe how FETP residents and graduates have contributed to COVID-19 preparedness and response globally. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of FETPs between March 13 and April 15, 2020 to understand how FETP residents or graduates were contributing to COVID-19 response activities. The survey tool was structured around the eight Pillars of the World Health Organization’s (WHO) Strategic Preparedness and Response Plan for COVID-19. We used descriptive statistics to summarize quantitative results and content analysis for qualitative data. Results Among 88 invited programs, 65 (74%) responded and indicated that FETP residents and graduates have engaged in the COVID-19 response across all six WHO regions. Response efforts focused on country-level coordination (98%), surveillance, rapid response teams, case investigations (97%), activities at points of entry (92%), and risk communication and community engagement (82%). Descriptions of FETP contributions to COVID-19 preparedness and response are categorized into seven main themes: conducting epidemiological activities, managing logistics and coordination, leading risk communication efforts, providing guidance, supporting surveillance activities, training and developing the workforce, and holding leadership positions. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate the value of FETPs in responding to public health threats like COVID-19. This program provides critical assistance to countries' COVID-19 response efforts but also enhances epidemiologic workforce capacity, public health emergency infrastructure and helps ensure global health security as prescribed in the WHO’s International Health Regulations.

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