layered structures
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2022 ◽  
Vol 55 (1) ◽  
Shmuel Samuha ◽  
Rimon Tamari ◽  
Benjamin Grushko ◽  
Louisa Meshi

The stable ϕ phase that forms below ∼923 K around the Al69.2Cu20.0Cr10.8 composition was found to be hexagonal [P63, a = 11.045 (2), c = 12.688 (2) Å] and isostructural to the earlier reported Al6.2Cu2Re X phase [Samuha, Grushko & Meshi (2016). J. Alloys Compd. 670, 18–24]. Using the structural model of the latter, a successful Rietveld refinement of the XRD data for Al69.5Cu20.0Cr10.5 was performed. Both ϕ and X were found to be structurally related to the Al72.6Cu11.0Cr16.4 ζ phase [P63/m, a = 17.714, c = 12.591 Å; Sugiyama, Saito & Hiraga (2002). J. Alloys Compd. 342, 148–152], with a close lattice parameter c and a τ-times-larger lattice parameter a (τ is the golden mean). The structural relationship between ζ and ϕ was established on the basis of the similarity of their layered structures and common features. Additionally, the strong-reflections approach was successfully applied for the modeling of the ϕ phase based on the structural model of the ζ phase. The latter and the experimental structural model (retrieved following Rietveld refinement) were found to be essentially identical.

Masashi Suzuki ◽  
Shoji Kakio

Abstract Piezoelectricity of YbAlN films has recently been shown to be almost as high as that of ScAlN films. YbAlN film surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators are expected to have a high coupling factor. We theoretically investigated the propagation characteristics of first-mode Rayleigh SAWs (RSAWs) on Yb0.33Al0.67N film/high-velocity Si, sapphire, AlN, SiC, BN, and diamond substrates. The first-mode RSAWs on the YbAlN layered structures had high coupling factors, higher than those on ScAlN layered structures. An enhancement of the effective coupling factor of the first mode RSAWs was observed in polarity inverted YbAlN film/BN or diamond substrate structures.

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (4) ◽  
pp. 4-10
Ya. M. Olikh ◽  
O. E. Belyaev ◽  
Ya. I. Lepikh

The analysis of methodological possibilities of excitation of quasi-longitudinal (QL) acoustic waves of the megahertz frequency range in layered structures GaN-on-sapphire is studied and carried out. Volume-type transducers polarized by plate thickness are used to generate and detect QL waves. It is concluded that quasilongitudinal modes (QL) can be excited by this method – the so-called Anisimkin (AN) waves, for which the displacement plane is localized in the film plane and the displacement direction is directed along the wave vector.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
Liang Cheng Chien ◽  
Chen Wei Chiang ◽  
Chou Chio Lao ◽  
Yung-I Lin ◽  
Hao-Wu Lin ◽  

AbstractBoron-based nanomaterials are emerging as non-toxic, earth-abundant (photo)electrocatalyst materials in solar energy conversion for the production of solar hydrogen fuel and environmental remediation. Boron carbon oxynitride (BCNO) is a quaternary semiconductor with electronic, optical, and physicochemical properties that can be tuned by varying the composition of boron, nitrogen, carbon, and oxygen. However, the relationship between BCNO's structure and -photocatalytic activity relationship has yet to be explored. We performed an in-depth spectroscopic analysis to elucidate the effect of using two different nitrogen precursors and the effect of annealing temperatures in the preparation of BCNO. BCNO nanodisks (D = 6.7 ± 1.1 nm) with turbostratic boron nitride diffraction patterns were prepared using guanidine hydrochloride as the nitrogen source precursor upon thermal annealing at 800°C. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) surface elemental analysis of the BCNO nanodisks revealed the B, C, N, and O compositions to be 40.6%, 7.95%, 37.7%, and 13.8%, respectively. According to the solid-state 11B NMR analyses, the guanidine hydrochloride-derived BCNO nanodisks showed the formation of various tricoordinate BNx(OH)3−x species, which also served as one of the photocatalytic active sites. The XRD and in-depth spectroscopic analyses corroborated the preparation of BCNO-doped hexagonal boron nitride nanodisks. In contrast, the BCNO annealed at 600 °C using melamine as the nitrogen precursor consisted of layered nanosheets composed of B, C, N, and O atoms covalently bonded in a honeycomb lattice as evidence by the XRD, XPS, and solid-state NMR analysis (11B and 13C) analyses. The XPS surface elemental composition of the melamine-derived BCNO layered structures consisted of a high carbon composition (75.1%) with a relatively low boron (5.24%) and nitrogen (7.27%) composition, which indicated the formation of BCNO-doped graphene oxides layered sheet structures. This series of melamine-derived BCNO-doped graphene oxide layered structures were found to exhibit the highest photocatalytic activity, exceeding the photocatalytic activity of graphitic carbon nitride. In this layered structure, the formation of the tetracoordinate BNx(OH)3−x(CO) species and the rich graphitic domains were proposed to play an important role in the photocatalytic activity of the BCNO-doped graphene oxides layered structures. The optical band gap energies were measured to be 5.7 eV and 4.2 eV for BCNO-doped hexagonal boron nitride nanodisks and BCNO-doped graphene oxides layered structures, respectively. Finally, BCNO exhibited an ultralong photoluminescence with an average decay lifetime of 1.58, 2.10, 5.18, and 8.14 µs for BGH01, BGH03, BMH01, BMH03, respectively. This study provides a novel metal-free photocatalytic system and provides the first structural analysis regarding the origin of BCNO-based photocatalyst. Graphical Abstract

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (22) ◽  
pp. 10808
Bei Yu ◽  
Haoran Jin ◽  
Yujian Mei ◽  
Jian Chen ◽  
Eryong Wu ◽  

Full-matrix capture (FMC)-based ultrasonic imaging provides good sensitivity to small defects in non-destructive testing and has gradually become a mainstream research topic. Many corresponding algorithms have been developed, e.g., the total focusing method (TFM). However, the efficiency of the TFM is limited, especially in multi-layered structures. Although the appearance of wavenumber algorithms, such as extended phase-shift migration (EPSM) methods, has improved imaging efficiency, these methods cannot be applied to cases with oblique incidence. Therefore, a modified wavenumber method for full-matrix imaging of multi-layered structures with oblique array incidence is proposed. This method performs a coordinate rotation in the frequency domain to adapt it to the oblique incidence. It then utilizes wave-field extrapolation to migrate the transmitting and receiving wave field to each imaging line, and a correlation imaging condition is used to reconstruct a total focused image. The proposed method can deal with any incident angle without precision loss. Moreover, it inherits the computational efficiency advantages of the wavenumber algorithms. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed method performs better in terms of accuracy and efficiency than the TFM. Specifically, it is nearly 60 times faster than the TFM when processing an FMC dataset with a size of 4096 × 64 × 64.

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (22) ◽  
pp. 6855
Hanoch Daniel Wagner

Compared with their monolithic version, layered structures are known to be beneficial in the design of materials, especially ceramics, providing enhanced fracture toughness, mechanical strength, and overall reliability. This was proposed in recent decades and extensively studied in the engineering literature. The source of the property enhancement is the ability of layered structures to deflect and often arrest propagating cracks along internal interfaces between layers. Similar crack-stopping abilities are found in nature for a broad range of fibrillary layered biological structures. Such abilities are largely governed by complex architectural design solutions and geometries, which all appear to involve the presence of various types of internal interfaces at different structural levels. The simultaneous occurrence at several scales of different types of interfaces, designated here as hierarchical interfaces, within judiciously designed layered composite materials, is a powerful approach that constrains cracks to bifurcate and stop. This is concisely described here using selected biological examples, potentially serving as inspiration for alternative designs of engineering composites.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1198 (1) ◽  
pp. 012002
Yu B Bashkuev ◽  
M G Dembelov ◽  
D G Buyanova ◽  
L Kh Angarkhaeva ◽  
I B Naguslaeva

Abstract Artificial and natural electromagnetic structures with strongly inductive surface impedance are considered. The object of the research is layered structures of the “dielectric-conductor” type. The existence of impedance media with the maximum possible phase of a strongly inductive impedance in the range from a few hertz to tens of gigahertz has been established. The results of numerical modelling of the propagation of decimeter radio waves over a plane strongly inductive surface are presented, these numerical results are necessary for calculating the attenuation function W and the field level E of microwave electromagnetic waves.

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