calcium concentration
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2022 ◽  
Vol 5 ◽  
pp. 151
Gabriela Cormick ◽  
Natalia Matamoros ◽  
Iris B. Romero ◽  
Surya M. Perez ◽  
Cintia White ◽  

Background: Food fortification is an effective strategy that has been recommended for improving population calcium inadequate intakes. Increasing calcium concentration of water has been proposed as a possible strategy to improve calcium intake. The objective of this study was to determine the sensory threshold of different calcium salts added to drinking water using survival analysis. Methods: We performed the triangle test methodology for samples of water with added calcium using three different calcium salts: calcium chloride, calcium gluconate and calcium lactate. For each salt, a panel of 54 consumers tested seven batches of three water samples. Data were adjusted for chance and sensory threshold was estimated using the survival methodology and a discrimination of 50%. Results: The threshold value estimation for calcium gluconate was 587 ± 131 mg/L of water, corresponding to 25% discrimination, for calcium lactate was 676 ± 186 mg/L, corresponding to 50% discrimination, and for calcium chloride was 291 ± 73 mg/L, corresponding to 50% discrimination. Conclusions: These results show that water with calcium added in different salts and up to a concentration of 500 mg of calcium/L of water is feasible. The calcium salt allowing the highest calcium concentration with the lowest perceived changes in taste was calcium gluconate. Future studies need to explore stability and acceptability over longer periods of time.

2022 ◽  
Xingbo Gu ◽  
dandan liu ◽  
ning Hao ◽  
xinyong Sun ◽  
xiaoxu Duan ◽  

Abstract Epidemiological studies have suggested that cold is an important contributor to acute cardiovascular events and mortality. However, little is known about the Diurnal Temperature Range(DTR)impact on mortality of the patients with myocardial infarction.Calcium ions(Ca2+)play a vital role in the human body, such as cardiac electrophysiology and contraction.To investigate whether DTR on admission moderates the association between serum calcium and in-hospital mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction(AMI). This retrospective study enrolled consecutive adult patients with AMI at a single center in China (2003–2012). Patients were divided into four groups (Ca-Q1–4) according to serum calcium concentration quartiles. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was used to assess whether DTR moderated the association between serum calcium and in-hospital mortality. The predictive value of serum calcium was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and net reclassification improvement (NRI) analyses.The study included 3780 patients.In-hospital mortality was 4.97%(188/3780).DTR moderated the association between serum calcium and in-hospital mortality(P-interaction=0.020).Patients with low serum calcium in the highest DTR quartile exhibited an increased risk of in-hospital mortality(odds ratio for Ca-Q4 vs.Ca-Q1, 0.03;95%confidence interval[95%CI], 0.01–0.20;P for trend<0.001).In the highest DTR quartile, adding serum calcium concentration to the risk factor model increased the area under the ROC curve(0.81 vs.0.76;P<0.001)and increased NRI by 20.2%(95%CI 7.5–32.9;P=0.001).Low serum calcium was an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality in patients with AMI, and this association was moderated by DTR.Careful attention should be paid to patients with low serum calcium who experience a higher DTR on admission.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Huanhuan Zhao ◽  
Dan Liu ◽  
Qiumei Yan ◽  
Xiyun Bian ◽  
Jing Yu ◽  

Zinc homeostasis has been known to play a role in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, but the precise molecular mechanisms regulating the expression of ZIP transporters during reperfusion are still unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether ER Stress/CaMKII/STAT3 pathway plays a role in the regulation of cellular zinc homeostasis. Zinc deficiency increased mRNA and protein expressions of the ER stress relevant markers Chop and Bip, and STAT3 phosphorylation in H9c2 or HL-1 cells, an effect that was abolished by ZnCl2. ER calcium concentration [(Ca2+)ER] was decreased and cytosolic calcium concentration [(Ca2+)I] was increased at the condition of normoxia or ischemia/reperfusion, indicating that zinc deficiency triggers ER stress and Ca2+ leak. Further studies showed that upregulation of STAT3 phosphorylation was reversed by Ca2+ chelator, indicating that intracellular Ca2+ is important for zinc deficiency-induced STAT3 activation. In support, zinc deficiency enhanced ryanodine receptors (RyR), a channel in the ER that mediate Ca2+ release, and Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII) phosphorylation, implying that zinc deficiency provoked Ca2+ leak from ER via RyR and p-CaMKII is involved in STAT3 activation. Moreover, inhibition of STAT3 activation blocked zinc deficiency induced ZIP9 expression, and resulted in increased Zn2+ loss in cardiomyocytes, further confirming that STAT3 activation during reperfusion promotes the expression of ZIP9 zinc transporter to correct the imbalance in zinc homeostasis. In addition, suppressed STAT3 activation aggravated reperfusion injury. These data suggest that the ER Stress/CaMKII/STAT3 axis may be an endogenous protective mechanism, which increases the resistance of the heart to I/R.

2022 ◽  
Camila Lopes Crescente ◽  
Emerson Tavares de Sousa ◽  
Aline Tavares Lima-Holanda ◽  
Carolina Steiner-Oliveira ◽  
Marinês Nobre-dos-Santos

Abstract This quasi-experimental study aimed at investigating the combined effect of biofilm accumulation and 20% sucrose rinse on the modulation of calcium (Ca2+), phosphate (Pi), and fluoride (F-) bioavailability in saliva of children with early childhood caries (ECC). In-that, fifty-six preschoolers of both genders were evaluated according to caries experience and activity: caries-free (CF, n=28) and with ECC (n=28) and then, submitted to biofilm intervention (biofilm accumulation or no biofilm accumulation). In each situation, saliva samples were collected before and five minutes after a 20% sucrose rinse to determine the concentrations of Ca2+, Pi, and F−. Calcium concentration was significantly lower in the biofilm accumulation situation compared to the situation of biofilm mechanical control, except for children CF after sucrose rinse. Biofilm accumulation increased salivary calcium concentration in children with ECC after sucrose rinse, whereas mechanical biofilm control reduced it in both groups. The phosphate concentration was influenced by mechanical control of the biofilm in CF children. The fluoride bioavailability was reduced by sucrose rinse and biofilm accumulation in CF and ECC children. In conclusion, the combined effect of biofilm accumulation and sucrose rinse modifies the bioavailability of calcium and fluoride in the saliva of children with early childhood caries.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Liping Peng ◽  
Jiawen Du ◽  
Runfan Zhang ◽  
Nali Zhu ◽  
He Zhao ◽  

Transient receptor potential (TRP) channel Yvc1 was related with hyphal growth, oxidative stress response, and pathogenicity. Calcineurin subunit Cnb1 was activated immediately in yeasts when exposed to severe stimulation. However, the relationship between Yvc1 and Cnb1-governed calcium ions and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response remains unrevealed. In this study, we found that the mutant cnb1Δ/Δ was sensitive to TN, which was related with the overexpression of membrane calcium ion channels that could increase the cytosol calcium concentration. However, the growth of the cnb1Δ/Δyvc1Δ/Δ mutant was recovered and its cell vitality was better than the cnb1Δ/Δ strain. Meanwhile, the cellular calcium concentration was decreased and its fluctuation was weakened under ER stress in the cnb1Δ/Δyvc1Δ/Δ strain. To verify the regulation role of Yvc1 in the calcium concentration, we found that the addition of CaCl2 led to the worse viability, while the growth state was relieved under the treatment of EGTA in the cnb1Δ/Δ strain. In conclusion, the deletion of YVC1 could reduce the cellular calcium and relieve the ER stress sensitivity of the cnb1Δ/Δ strain. Thereby, our findings shed a novel light on the relationship between the Yvc1-governed cellular calcium concentration and ER stress response in C. albicans.

Membranes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 897
Andrew Bogard ◽  
Pangaea Finn ◽  
Fulton McKinney ◽  
Ilinca Flacau ◽  
Aviana Smith ◽  

The electrochemical gradients established across cell membranes are paramount for the execution of biological functions. Besides ion channels, other transporters, such as exogenous pore-forming toxins, may present ionic selectivity upon reconstitution in natural and artificial lipid membranes and contribute to the electrochemical gradients. In this context, we utilized electrophysiology approaches to assess the ionic selectivity of the pore-forming toxin lysenin reconstituted in planar bilayer lipid membranes. The membrane voltages were determined from the reversal potentials recorded upon channel exposure to asymmetrical ionic conditions, and the permeability ratios were calculated from the fit with the Goldman–Hodgkin–Katz equation. Our work shows that lysenin channels are ion-selective and the determined permeability coefficients are cation and anion-species dependent. We also exploited the unique property of lysenin channels to transition to a stable sub-conducting state upon exposure to calcium ions and assessed their subsequent change in ionic selectivity. The observed loss of selectivity was implemented in an electrical model describing the dependency of reversal potentials on calcium concentration. In conclusion, our work demonstrates that this pore-forming toxin presents ionic selectivity but this is adjusted by the particular conduction state of the channels.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (22) ◽  
pp. 12370
Ying Chen ◽  
Wenqing Xu ◽  
Yuan Yuan ◽  
Houyang Chen ◽  
Shuangyan Zheng ◽  

Ketamine, which used to be widely applied in human and animal medicine as a dissociative anesthetic, has become a popular recreational drug because of its hallucinogenic effect. Our previous study preliminarily proved that ketamine could inhibit human sperm function by affecting intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). However, the specific signaling pathway of [Ca2+]i induced by ketamine in human sperm is still not clear yet. Here, the N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor was detected in the tail region of human sperm. Its physiological ligand, NMDA (50 μM), could reverse ketamine’s inhibitory effect on human sperm function, and its antagonist, MK801 (100 μM), could restrain the effect of NMDA. The inhibitory effect caused by 4 mM ketamine or 100 μM MK801 on [Ca2+]i, which is a central factor in the regulation of human sperm function, could also be recovered by 50 μM NMDA. The results suggest that the NMDA receptor is probably involved in the inhibitory effect of ketamine on human sperm functions.

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