gaseous fuels
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2022 ◽  
pp. 347-385
C. Karthick ◽  
Kasianantham Nanthagopal ◽  
B. Ashok ◽  
S.V. Saravanan

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 221
Anna Huszal ◽  
Jacek Jaworski

An essential prerequisite for safe transport and use of natural gas is their appropriate odorization. This enables the detection of uncontrolled gas leaks. Proper and systematic odorization inspection ensures both safe use of gas and continuity of the process itself. In practice, it is conducted through, among others, measuring odorant concentrations in gas. Control devices for rapid gas odorization measurements that are currently used on a large scale in the gas industry are equipped with electrochemical detectors selective for sulfur compounds like tetrahydrothiophene (THT). Because the selectivity of electrochemical detector response to one compound (e.g., THT), the available declarations of manufacturers show that detector sensitivity (indirectly also the quality of the measurement result) is influenced by the presence of increased e.g., sulfur or hydrogen compound content in the gas. Because of the lack of sufficient source literature data in this field, it was necessary to experimentally verify this impact. The results of studies on experimental verification of suspected influence of increased amounts of hydrogen in gas on the response of electrochemical detector was carried out at the Oil and Gas Institute—National Research Institute (INiG—PIB). They are presented in this article. The data gathered in the course of researching the dependence between THT concentration measurement result quality and hydrogen content in gas composition enabled a preliminary assessment of the threat to the safety of end users of gaseous fuels caused by the introduction of this gas into the distribution network. Noticing the scope of necessary changes in the area of odorization is necessary to guarantee this safety.

Juan Pablo Gomez Montoya ◽  
Andres Amell

Abstract A novel methodology is proposed to evaluate fuel´s performance in spark ignition (SI) engines based on the fuel´s energy quality and availability to produce work. Experiments used a diesel engine with a high compression ratio (CR), modified by SI operation, and using interchangeable pistons. The interchangeable pistons allowed for the generation of varying degrees of turbulence during combustion, ranging from middle to high turbulence. The generating efficiency (ηq), and the maximum electrical energy (EEmax) were measured at the knocking threshold (KT). A cooperative fuel research (CFR) engine operating at the KT was also used to measure the methane number (MN), and critical compression ratio (CCR) for gaseous fuels. Fuels with MNs ranging from 37 to 140 were used: two biogases, methane, propane, and five fuel blends of biogas with methane/propane and hydrogen. Results from both engines are linked at the KT to determine correlations between fuel´s physicochemical properties and the knocking phenomenon. Certain correlations between knocking and fuel properties were experimentally determined: energy density (ED), laminar flame speed (SL), adiabatic flame temperature (Tad), heat capacity ratio (γ), and hydrogen/carbon (H/C) ratio. Based on the results, a mathematical methodology for estimating EEmax and ηq in terms of ED, SL, Tad, γ, H/C, and MN is presented. These equations were derived from the classical maximum thermal efficiency for SI engines given by the Otto cycle efficiency (ηOtto). Fuels with MN > 97 got higher EEmax, and ηq than propane, and diesel fuels.

2021 ◽  
Paweł Marzec

The article presents the test stand and the test results of a vehicle with an SI engine, fueled by a blends of LPG and DME gaseous fuels. During the tests, a chassis dynamometer was used, which reproducibly reflected road conditions. The tests were carried out for various shares of DME in the mixture, thus determining the maximum possible share of this fuel. The measuring points have been extended with different engine loads and different rotational speeds. The analysis of the pressure inside the engine cylinder made it possible to compare the operation of the engine powered by mixtures of different proportions to the reference fuel - LPG.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (23) ◽  
pp. 11300
David Lázaro ◽  
Alain Alonso ◽  
Mariano Lázaro ◽  
Daniel Alvear

In a fire, the polymer combustion occurs when gaseous fuels react with oxygen. The heating of a material could force the release of gaseous fuels during thermal decomposition and pyrolysis. The rate of pyrolysis to define the gaseous fuels is usually interpreted by means of the Arrhenius expression and a reaction model expression, which are characterized by an activation energy, a pre-exponential factor, and a reaction order value. Many methods are available for determining kinetic parameters from thermogravimetric experimental data. However, the most challenging issue is achieving an adequate balance between accuracy and simplicity. This work proposes a direct method for determining the kinetic parameters with only a thermogravimetric experiment at a single heating rate. The method was validated with six polymers, and the results were compared with those from similar procedures, such as the Lyon method and generalized direct method. The results achieved using the simpler approach of the proposed method show a high level of accuracy.

2021 ◽  
Christopher U. Brown ◽  
Ryan Falkenstein-Smith ◽  
Thomas G. Cleary

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