thermal decomposition
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2022 ◽  
Vol 240 ◽  
pp. 111959
Beilin Zuo ◽  
Shuai-Zhong Wang ◽  
Sulan Yang ◽  
Peijin Liu ◽  
Qi-Long Yan

Catalysts ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 96
Yonis Fornazier Filho ◽  
Ana Caroliny Carvalho da Cruz ◽  
Rolando Pedicini ◽  
José Ricardo Cezar Salgado ◽  
Rodrigo Vieira Rodrigues ◽  

An efficient ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) is required to enhance energy production in alcohol-based fuel cells. The use of bimetallic catalysts promises decreasing reliance on platinum group metal (PGM) electrocatalysts by minimizing the use of these expensive materials in the overall electrocatalyst composition. In this article, an alternative method of bimetallic electrocatalyst synthesis based on the use of polymeric precursors is explored. PdAg/C electrocatalysts were synthesized by thermal decomposition of polymeric precursors and used as the anode electrocatalyst for EOR. Different compositions, including pristine Pd/C and Ag/C, as well as bimetallic Pd80Ag20/C, and Pd60Ag40/C electrocatalysts, were evaluated. Synthesized catalysts were characterized, and electrochemical activity evaluated. X-ray diffraction showed a notable change at diffraction peak values for Pd80Ag20/C and Pd60Ag40/C electrocatalysts, suggesting alloying (solid solution) and smaller crystallite sizes for Pd60Ag40/C. In a thermogravimetric analysis, the electrocatalyst Pd60Ag40/C presented changes in the profile of the curves compared to the other electrocatalysts. In the cyclic voltammetry results for EOR in alkaline medium, Pd60Ag40/C presented a more negative onset potential, a higher current density at the oxidation peak, and a larger electrically active area. Chronoamperometry tests indicated a lower poisoning rate for Pd60Ag40/C, a fact also observed in the CO-stripping voltammetry analysis due to its low onset potential. As the best performing electrocatalyst, Pd60Ag40/C has a lower mass of Pd (a noble and expensive metal) in its composition. It can be inferred that this bimetallic composition can contribute to decreasing the amount of Pd required while increasing the fuel cell performance and expected life. PdAg-type electrocatalysts can provide an economically feasible alternative to pure PGM-electrocatalysts for use as the anode in EOR in fuel cells.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 548
Gabriela V. T. Kurban ◽  
Artur S. C. Rego ◽  
Nathalli M. Mello ◽  
Eduardo A. Brocchi ◽  
Rogério C. S. Navarro ◽  

The sulfur–iodine thermochemical water-splitting cycle is a promising route proposed for hydrogen production. The decomposition temperature remains a challenge in the process. Catalysts, such as Pd supported on Al2O3, are being considered to decrease reaction temperatures. However, little is known regarding the kinetic behavior of such systems. In this work, zinc sulfate thermal decomposition was studied through non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis to understand the effect of a catalyst within the sulfur–iodine reaction system context. The findings of this analysis were also related to a thermodynamic assessment. It was observed that the presence of Pd/Al2O3 modified the reaction mechanism, possibly with some intermediate reactions that were suppressed or remarkably accelerated. The proposed model suggests that zinc sulfate transformation occurred in two sequential stages without the Pd-based material. Activation energy values of 238 and 368 kJ.mol−1 were calculated. In the presence of Pd/Al2O3, an activation energy value of 204 kJ.mol−1 was calculated, which is lower than observed previously.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 583
Pedro José Sánchez-Soto ◽  
Dolores Eliche-Quesada ◽  
Sergio Martínez-Martínez ◽  
Luis Pérez-Villarejo ◽  
Eduardo Garzón

A deposit of raw kaolin, located in West Andalusia (Spain), was studied in this work using a representative sample. The methods of characterization were X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), particle size analysis by sieving and sedimentation, and thermal analysis. The ceramic properties were determined. A sample of commercial kaolin from Burela (Lugo, Spain), with applications in the ceramic industry, was used in some determinations for comparison purposes. The kaolin deposit has been produced by alteration of feldspar-rich rocks. This raw kaolin was applied as an additive in local manufactures of ceramics and refractories. However, there is not previous studies concerning its characteristics and firing properties. Thus, the meaning of this investigation was to conduct a scientific study on this subject and to evaluate the possibilities of application. The raw kaolin was washed for the beneficiation of the rock using water to increase the kaolinite content of the resultant material. The results indicated that the kaolinite content of the raw material was 20 wt % as determined by XRD, showing ~23 wt % of particles lower than 63 µm. The kaolinite content of the fraction lower than 63 µm was 50 wt %. Thus, an improvement of the kaolinite content of this raw kaolin was produced by wet separation. However, the kaolin was considered as a waste kaolin, with microcline, muscovite and quartz identified by XRD. Thermal analyses by Thermo-Dilatometry (TD), Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) and Thermo-Gravimetry (TG) allowed observe kaolinite thermal decomposition, quartz phase transition and sintering effects. Pressed samples of this raw kaolin, the fraction lower than 63 µm obtained by water washing and the raw kaolin ground using a hammer mill were fired at several temperatures in the range 1000–1500 °C for 2 h. The ceramic properties of all these samples were determined and compared. The results showed the progressive linear firing shrinkage by sintering in these samples, with a maximum value of ~9% in the fraction lower than 63 µm. In general, water absorption capacity of the fired samples showed a decrease from ~18–20% at 1050 °C up to almost zero after firing at 1300 °C, followed by an increase of the experimental values. The open porosity was almost zero after firing at 1350 °C for 2 h and the bulk density reached a maximum value of 2.40 g/cm3 as observed in the ground raw kaolin sample. The XRD examination of fired samples indicated that they are composed by mullite, from kaolinite thermal decomposition, and quartz, present in the raw sample, as main crystalline phases besides a vitreous phase. Fully-densified or vitrified materials were obtained by firing at 1300–1350 °C for 2 h. In a second step of this research, it was examined the promising application of the previous study to increase the amount of mullite by incorporation of alumina (α-alumina) to this kaolin sample. Firing of mixtures, prepared using this kaolin and α-alumina under wet processing conditions, produced the increase of mullite in relative proportion by reaction sintering at temperatures higher than 1500 °C for 2 h. Consequently, a mullite refractory can be prepared using this kaolin. This processing of high-alumina refractories is favoured by a previous size separation, which increases the kaolinite content, or better a grinding treatment of the raw kaolin.

Yongli Li ◽  
Fei Huang ◽  
Wenyuan Gao ◽  
Qi Zhu ◽  
Can Shen ◽  

Joanna D Stachowska ◽  
Monika B Gamża ◽  
Claire Mellor ◽  
Ella N Gibbons ◽  
Marta J Krysmann ◽  

We present a simple strategy to generate a family of carbon dot/iron oxide nanoparticles (C/Fe-NPs) that relies on the thermal decomposition of iron (III) acetylacetonate in the presence of a highly fluorescent carbon-rich precursor, while polyethylene glycol serves as the passivation agent. By varying the molar ratio of the reactants, a series of C/Fe-NPs have been synthesized with tuneable elemental composition in terms of C, H, O, N, Fe. The quantum yield is enhanced from 6% to 9% as the carbon content increases from 27% to 36%, while the room temperature saturation magnetization is improved from 4.1 emu/g to 17.7 emu/g as the iron content is enriched from 17 to 31%. In addition, the C/Fe-NPs show excellent antimicrobial properties, minimal cytotoxicity and demonstrate promising bioimaging capabilities, thus showing great potential for the development of advanced diagnostic tools.

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