Changes in modern technologies have led to a decrease in the role of oil and threaten the well-being of oil-exporting countries. The oil and gas industry is the leading one in the economy of Kazakhstan, and the future of the country depends on its development. The purpose of the presented research is to determine the long-term image of the future oil and gas industry and develop a strategy for the government and national companies in different spheres for actions in conditions of increasing uncertainty. The article presents the materials of an expert survey using the Delphi method (211 industry experts) and a group discussion during a foresight session (75 participants), in which the authors provided methodological support and practical participation. The top nine development trends have been identified, the majority of experts (about 90%) see the future of the industry as the development of unmanned production based on digital management and an increase in environmental requirements (85%). The author’s methodology is based on a pragmatic approach to conducting an industry technological foresight in the medium term. The visionary image of the development of the oil and gas industry is built on the basis of the possibilities of technological breakthroughs. The refined image was formed as a response to the challenges of the external environment on the principle of the “Most Advanced, Yet Acceptable”. The main characteristic of the future of the oil and gas industry in Kazakhstan is a deserted production, where the production process is fully automated and robotic. Risks of oil and gas industry development are critical for the entire economy of Kazakhstan, so plans based on industry foresight projections to prevent them are a national priority.
Regulators require the gas industry to assess the risks of unintentional release of chemicals to the environment and implement measures to mitigate it. Industry standard models for contaminant transport in aquifers do not explicitly model processes in the unsaturated zone and groundwater models often require long run times to complete simulation of complex processes. We propose a stochastic numerical-analytical hybrid model to overcome these two shortcomings and demonstrate its application to assess the risks associated with onshore gas drilling in the Otway Basin, South Australia. The novel approach couples HYDRUS-1D to an analytical solution to model contaminant transport in the aquifer. Groundwater velocities and chemical trajectories were derived from a particle tracking analysis. The most influential parameters controlling solute delivery to the aquifer were the soil chemical degradation constant and the hydraulic conductivity of a throttle soil horizon. Only 18% of the flow paths intercepted environmental receptors within a 1-km radius from the source, 87% of which had concentrations of <1% of the source. The proposed methodology assesses the risk to environmental assets and informs regulators to implement measures that mitigate risk down to an acceptable level.
The educational project of producing engineers in Qatar is uniquely embedded in global capitalism, particularly as a field closely tied to the development of the oil and gas industry, the military and logistics spaces across the Gulf. Over the past two decades, U.S. universities based in the region have become significant spaces where new generations of managerial engineering labor are educated. Drawing on 18 months of institutional ethnographic research, I examine Texas A&M University at Qatar’s (TAMUQ) role in managing the gender demographics of Qatari engineering labor and the experiences of students navigating these institutional mechanisms. The increasing number of women studying at Texas A&M’s engineering branch campus are publicly celebrated by the university as the embodiment of progress in Qatar. At the same time, TAMUQ has worked to mitigate the feminization of engineering through outreach activities that present engineering as a masculine patriotic endeavor. To unpack these contradictory tendencies, I build on the feminist concept of “demographic fever dreams.” Through an examination of contradictory population-based anxieties about Qatari engineering students, I argue that a U.S. land-grant university is a participant and driver of fantasies and fears regarding the future of racialized and gendered labor hierarchies and fossil-fueled capitalism in the Gulf. In doing so, this article offers a grounded feminist intervention to examine the connections between transnational education, U.S. hegemony, and the fossil fuel industry.
This study examines the impact of industry-specific risk factors such as oil price, gas price, and exchange rate on stock returns of Malaysian oil and gas firms in a structural break environment by employing the break least square approach of Bai and Perron (1998, 2003). Existing studies fall short of providing such empirical evidence. The results document evidence of structural breaks in the relationship between industry risk factors and the stock returns of the oil and gas industry. Industry-specific risk factors are shown to significantly affect the stock returns of oil and gas industry sub-sectors alongside market-based risk factors. The results reveal that the beta values of oil price, gas price, and exchange rate vary across sub-periods hence confirming that exposure of oil and gas stocks to industry risk factors varies over time and across sub-periods. The effects of oil, gas, and exchange rate risk factors also differ across the sub-industry, with impacts and directions largely dependent on the core business activities of the oil and gas sub-industries. The empirical results offer implications for asset managers and investors.
The unique properties of supercritical fluid technology have found wide application in various industry sectors. Supercritical fluids allow for the obtainment of new types of products with special characteristics, or development and design of technological processes that are cost-effective and friendly to the environment. One of the promising areas where supercritical fluids, especially carbon dioxide, can be used is the oil industry. In this regard, the present review article summarizes the results of theoretical and experimental studies of the use of supercritical fluids in the oil and gas industry for supercritical extraction in the course of oil refining, increasing oil recovery in the production of heavy oil, hydraulic fracturing, as well as processing and disposal of oil sludge and asphaltenes. At the end of the present review, the issue of the impact of supercritical fluid on the corrosion of oil and gas equipment is considered. It is found that supercritical fluid technologies are very promising for the oil industry, but supercritical fluids also have disadvantages, such as expansion or incompatibility with materials (for example, rubber).
This paper aims to report on the findings from a research project, incorporated by Iran’s Ministry of Petroleum, investigating the integration of inspection management with analysis of document information.
A combination of group and individual interviews were undertaken with qualitative methods of analysis to develop an integrated process model. The model developed uses integrity management factors, which allows flexibility and the early integration of inspection management systems at a strategic level, although detailed planning is still required through the use of integrated management tools. The model combines information on responsibilities, tasks and policies, of personnel in the inspection management of the piping system with the oil and gas industry.
The six inspection activities recognized for the main practical model are, namely, identify pipeline situation; inspect and measure defects; inspection assessment; design inspection; implement inspection activities and measure and report inspection.
This research presented not only a process but also the framework and techniques to manage and improve management effectiveness and inspection efficiency in pipelines of the oil and gas industry. This study will be useful to researchers maintenance professionals and others concerned with inspection and maintenance management of facilities and equipment in the oil and gas industry.
The article discusses issues related to the influence of changes in the frequency, intensity and duration of extreme meteorological events on the objects of the oil and gas industry. Climate indices recommended by World Meteorological Organization (WMO) are used as characteristics of the extreme events. The possibilities of using climatic indices for identifying physical risks applicable to the objects of the oil and gas industry are demonstrated. The features of the spatiotemporal variability of climatic indices are considered and the geographical regions of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) are identified as the most and least vulnerable to changes in the extreme characteristics of the climate. The results obtained can be used both at the level of individual enterprises and facilities of the oil and gas industry, and in the development of regulations common for the industry.