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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Fengli Zou ◽  
Qingwu Hu ◽  
Haidong Li ◽  
Jie Lin ◽  
Yichuan Liu ◽  
...  

Grassland is the vegetation type with the widest coverage on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Under the influence of multiple factors, such as global climate change and human activities, grassland is undergoing temporal and spatially different disturbances and changes, and they have a significant impact on the grassland ecosystem of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Therefore, timely and dynamic monitoring of grassland disturbances and distinguishing the reasons for the changes are essential for ecological understanding and management. The purpose of this research is to propose a knowledge-based strategy to realize grassland dynamic distribution mapping and analysis of grassland disturbance changes in the region that are suitable for the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The purpose of this study is to propose an analysis algorithm that uses first annual mapping and then establishes temporal disturbance rules, which is applicable to the integrated exploration of disturbance changes in highland-type grasslands. The characteristic indexes of greenness and disturbance indices in the growing period were constructed and integrated with deep neural network learning to dynamically map the grassland for many years. The overall accuracy of grassland mapping was 94.11% and that of Kappa was 0.845. The results show that the area of grassland increased by 11.18% from 2001 to 2017. Then, the grassland disturbance change analysis method is proposed in monitoring the grassland distribution range, and it is found that the area of grassland with significant disturbance change accounts for 10.86% of the total area of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and the disturbance changes are specifically divided into seven types. Among them, the type of degradation after disturbance mainly occurs in Tibet, whereas the main types of vegetation greenness increase in Qinghai and Gansu. At the same time, the study finds that climate change, altitude, and human grazing activities are the main factors affecting grassland disturbance changes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and there are spatial differences.


Author(s):  
Jie Cheng ◽  
Bingjie Lin ◽  
Jiahui Wei ◽  
Ang Xia

In order to solve the problem of low security of data in network transmission and inaccurate prediction of future security situation, an improved neural network learning algorithm is proposed in this paper. The algorithm makes up for the shortcomings of the standard neural network learning algorithm, eliminates the redundant data by vector support, and realizes the effective clustering of information data. In addition, the improved neural network learning algorithm uses the order of data to optimize the "end" data in the standard neural network learning algorithm, so as to improve the accuracy and computational efficiency of network security situation prediction.MATLAB simulation results show that the data processing capacity of support vector combined BP neural network is consistent with the actual security situation data requirements, the consistency can reach 98%. the consistency of the security situation results can reach 99%, the composite prediction time of the whole security situation is less than 25s, the line segment slope change can reach 2.3% ,and the slope change range can reach 1.2%,, which is better than BP neural network algorithm.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
M.Uma Maheswar Rao ◽  
Kanhu Charan Patra ◽  
Suvendu Kumar Sasmal

Abstract Floods disrupt human activities, resulting in the loss of lives and property of a region. Excessive rainfall is one of the reasons for flooding, especially in the downstream areas of a catchment. Because of its complexity, understanding and forecasting rainfall is incredibly a challenge. This study investigates the use of an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) in predicting rainfall using several surface weather parameters as predictors. An ANFIS model is developed for forecasting rainfall over the Upper Brahmani Basin by using 30 years of climate data. A hybrid model with six membership functions gives the best forecast for an area. The suggested method blends neural network learning capabilities with language representations of fuzzy systems that are transparent. The application of ANFIS is to the upper Brahmani river basin is tried for the first time. The ANFIS model with various input structures and membership functions has been built, trained, and tested to evaluate the capability of the model. Statistical performance indices are used to evaluate the performance. Using the developed model, forecast is done for year 2021 – 2030.


Author(s):  
Y. A. Bury ◽  
D. I. Samal

The article presents the results of combining 4 different types of neural network learning: evolutionary, reinforcing, deep and extrapolating. The last two are used as the primary method for reducing the dimension of the input signal of the system and simplifying the process of its training in terms of computational complexity.In the presented work, the neural network structure of the control device of the modeled system is formed in the course of the evolutionary process, taking into account the currently known structural and developmental features of self-learning systems that take place in living nature. This method of constructing it makes it possible to bypass the specific limitations of models created on the basis of recombination of already known topologies of neural networks.


2021 ◽  
pp. 513-518
Author(s):  
Artem Tetskyi ◽  
Vyacheslav Kharchenko ◽  
Dmytro Uzun ◽  
Artem Nechausov

During penetration testing of web applications, different tools are actively used to relieve the tester from repeating monotonous operations. The difficulty of the choice is in the fact that there are tools with similar functionality, and it is hard to define which tool is best to choose for a particular case. In this paper, a solution of the problem with making a choice by creating a Web service that will use a neural network on the server side is proposed. The neural network is trained on data obtained from experts in the field of penetration testing. A trained neural network will be able to select tools in accordance with specified requirements. Examples of the operation of a neural network trained on a small sample of data are shown. The effect of the number of neural network learning epochs on the results of work is shown. An example of input data is given, in which the neural network could not select the tool due to insufficient data for training. The advantages of the method shown are the simplicity of implementation (the number of lines of code is used as a metric) and the possibility of using opinions about tools from various experts. The disadvantages include the search for data for training, the need for experimental selection of the parameters of the neural network and the possibility of situations where the neural network will not be able to select tool that meets the specified requirements.


2021 ◽  
Vol 118 (51) ◽  
pp. e2111821118
Author(s):  
Yuhan Helena Liu ◽  
Stephen Smith ◽  
Stefan Mihalas ◽  
Eric Shea-Brown ◽  
Uygar Sümbül

Brains learn tasks via experience-driven differential adjustment of their myriad individual synaptic connections, but the mechanisms that target appropriate adjustment to particular connections remain deeply enigmatic. While Hebbian synaptic plasticity, synaptic eligibility traces, and top-down feedback signals surely contribute to solving this synaptic credit-assignment problem, alone, they appear to be insufficient. Inspired by new genetic perspectives on neuronal signaling architectures, here, we present a normative theory for synaptic learning, where we predict that neurons communicate their contribution to the learning outcome to nearby neurons via cell-type–specific local neuromodulation. Computational tests suggest that neuron-type diversity and neuron-type–specific local neuromodulation may be critical pieces of the biological credit-assignment puzzle. They also suggest algorithms for improved artificial neural network learning efficiency.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Author(s):  
Gharbi Alshammari ◽  
Abdulsattar Abdullah Hamad ◽  
Zeyad M. Abdullah ◽  
Abdulrhman M. Alshareef ◽  
Nawaf Alhebaishi ◽  
...  

Studies carried out by researchers show that data growth can be exploited in such a way that the use of deep learning algorithms allow predictions with a high level of precision based on the data, which is why the latest studies are focused on the use of convolutional neural networks as the optimal algorithm for image classification. The present research work has focused on making the diagnosis of a disease that affects the cornea called keratoconus through the use of deep learning algorithms to detect patterns that will later be used to carry out preventive detections. The algorithm used to perform the classifications has been convolutional neural networks as well as image preprocessing to remove noise that can limit neural network learning, resulting in more than 1900 classified images out of a total of >2000 images distributed between normal eyes and those with keratoconus, which is equivalent to 92%.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 (12) ◽  
pp. 124004
Author(s):  
Parthe Pandit ◽  
Mojtaba Sahraee-Ardakan ◽  
Sundeep Rangan ◽  
Philip Schniter ◽  
Alyson K Fletcher

Abstract We consider the problem of estimating the input and hidden variables of a stochastic multi-layer neural network (NN) from an observation of the output. The hidden variables in each layer are represented as matrices with statistical interactions along both rows as well as columns. This problem applies to matrix imputation, signal recovery via deep generative prior models, multi-task and mixed regression, and learning certain classes of two-layer NNs. We extend a recently-developed algorithm—multi-layer vector approximate message passing, for this matrix-valued inference problem. It is shown that the performance of the proposed multi-layer matrix vector approximate message passing algorithm can be exactly predicted in a certain random large-system limit, where the dimensions N × d of the unknown quantities grow as N → ∞ with d fixed. In the two-layer neural-network learning problem, this scaling corresponds to the case where the number of input features as well as training samples grow to infinity but the number of hidden nodes stays fixed. The analysis enables a precise prediction of the parameter and test error of the learning.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Ryota Ozaki ◽  
Naoya Sugiura ◽  
Yoji Kuroda

AbstractThis paper presents an EKF (extended Kalman filter) based self-attitude estimation method with a LiDAR DNN (deep neural network) learning landscape regularities. The proposed DNN infers the gravity direction from LiDAR data. The point cloud obtained with the LiDAR is transformed to a depth image to be input to the network. It is pre-trained with large synthetic datasets. They are collected in a flight simulator because various gravity vectors can be easily obtained, although this study focuses not only on UAVs. Fine-tuning with datasets collected with real sensors is done after the pre-training. Data augmentation is processed during the training in order to provide higher general versatility. The proposed method integrates angular rates from a gyroscope and the DNN outputs in an EKF. Static validations are performed to show the DNN can infer the gravity direction. Dynamic validations are performed to show the DNN can be used in real-time estimation. Some conventional methods are implemented for comparison.


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