hybrid speciation
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Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 125
Francesco Blasio ◽  
Pilar Prieto ◽  
Mónica Pradillo ◽  
Tomás Naranjo

Hybridization and polyploidy have been considered as significant evolutionary forces in adaptation and speciation, especially among plants. Interspecific gene flow generates novel genetic variants adaptable to different environments, but it is also a gene introgression mechanism in crops to increase their agronomical yield. An estimate of 9% of interspecific hybridization has been reported although the frequency varies among taxa. Homoploid hybrid speciation is rare compared to allopolyploidy. Chromosome doubling after hybridization is the result of cellular defects produced mainly during meiosis. Unreduced gametes, which are formed at an average frequency of 2.52% across species, are the result of altered spindle organization or orientation, disturbed kinetochore functioning, abnormal cytokinesis, or loss of any meiotic division. Meiotic changes and their genetic basis, leading to the cytological diploidization of allopolyploids, are just beginning to be understood especially in wheat. However, the nature and mode of action of homoeologous recombination suppressor genes are poorly understood in other allopolyploids. The merger of two independent genomes causes a deep modification of their architecture, gene expression, and molecular interactions leading to the phenotype. We provide an overview of genomic changes and transcriptomic modifications that particularly occur at the early stages of allopolyploid formation.

2021 ◽  
Victor Noguerales ◽  
Joaquin Ortego

Post-divergence gene flow can trigger a number of creative evolutionary outcomes, ranging from the transfer of beneficial alleles across species boundaries (i.e., adaptive introgression) to the formation of new species (i.e., hybrid speciation). While neutral and adaptive introgression has been broadly documented in nature, hybrid speciation is assumed to be rare and the evolutionary and ecological context facilitating this phenomenon still remains controversial. Through combining genomic and phenotypic data, we evaluate the hypothesis that the dual feeding regime (scrub legumes and gramineous herbs) of the taxonomically controversial grasshopper Chorthippus saulcyi algoaldensis resulted from hybridization between two sister taxa that exhibit contrasting host-plant specializations: C. binotatus (scrub legumes) and C. saulcyi (gramineous herbs). Genetic clustering analyses and inferences from coalescent-based demographic simulations confirmed that C. s. algoaldensis represents a uniquely evolving lineage and supported the ancient hybrid origin of this taxon (ca. 1.4 Ma), which provides a mechanistic explanation for its broader trophic niche and sheds light on its uncertain phylogenetic position. We propose a Pleistocene hybrid speciation model where range shifts resulting from climatic oscillations can promote the formation of hybrid swarms and facilitate its long-term persistence through geographic isolation from parental forms in topographically complex landscapes.

Genes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 50
Roya Adavoudi ◽  
Małgorzata Pilot

Hybridization, defined as breeding between two distinct taxonomic units, can have an important effect on the evolutionary patterns in cross-breeding taxa. Although interspecific hybridization has frequently been considered as a maladaptive process, which threatens species genetic integrity and survival via genetic swamping and outbreeding depression, in some cases hybridization can introduce novel adaptive variation and increase fitness. Most studies to date focused on documenting hybridization events and analyzing their causes, while relatively little is known about the consequences of hybridization and its impact on the parental species. To address this knowledge gap, we conducted a systematic review of studies on hybridization in mammals published in 2010–2021, and identified 115 relevant studies. Of 13 categories of hybridization consequences described in these studies, the most common negative consequence (21% of studies) was genetic swamping and the most common positive consequence (8%) was the gain of novel adaptive variation. The total frequency of negative consequences (49%) was higher than positive (13%) and neutral (38%) consequences. These frequencies are biased by the detection possibilities of microsatellite loci, the most common genetic markers used in the papers assessed. As negative outcomes are typically easier to demonstrate than positive ones (e.g., extinction vs hybrid speciation), they may be over-represented in publications. Transition towards genomic studies involving both neutral and adaptive variation will provide a better insight into the real impacts of hybridization.

Juan F. Masello ◽  
Peter G. Ryan ◽  
Lara D. Shepherd ◽  
Petra Quillfeldt ◽  
Yves Cherel ◽  

AbstractInterspecific introgression can occur between species that evolve rapidly within an adaptive radiation. Pachyptila petrels differ in bill size and are characterised by incomplete reproductive isolation, leading to interspecific gene flow. Salvin’s prion (Pachyptila salvini), whose bill width is intermediate between broad-billed (P. vittata) and Antarctic (P. desolata) prions, evolved through homoploid hybrid speciation. MacGillivray’s prion (P. macgillivrayi), known from a single population on St Paul (Indian Ocean), has a bill width intermediate between salvini and vittata and could also be the product of interspecies introgression or hybrid speciation. Recently, another prion population phenotypically similar to macgillivrayi was discovered on Gough (Atlantic Ocean), where it breeds 3 months later than vittata. The similarity in bill width between the medium-billed birds on Gough and macgillivrayi suggest that they could be closely related. In this study, we used genetic and morphological data to infer the phylogenetic position and evolutionary history of P. macgillivrayi and the Gough medium-billed prion relative other Pachyptila taxa, to determine whether species with medium bill widths evolved through common ancestry or convergence. We found that Gough medium-billed prions belong to the same evolutionary lineage as macgillivrayi, representing a new population of MacGillivray’s prion that originated through a colonisation event from St Paul. We show that macgillivrayi’s medium bill width evolved through divergence (genetic drift) and independently from that of salvini, which evolved through hybridisation (gene flow). This represents the independent convergence towards a similarly medium-billed phenotype. The newly discovered MacGillivray’s prion population on Gough is of utmost conservation relevance, as the relict macgillivrayi population in the Indian Ocean is very small.

2021 ◽  
Lukas J Musher ◽  
Melina Giakoumis ◽  
James Albert ◽  
Glaucia Del Rio ◽  
Marco Rego ◽  

Large Amazonian rivers impede dispersal for many species, but lowland river networks frequently rearrange, thereby altering the location and effectiveness of river-barriers through time. These rearrangements may promote biotic diversification by facilitating episodic allopatry and secondary contact among populations. We sequenced genome-wide markers to evaluate histories of divergence and introgression in six Amazonian avian species-complexes. We first tested the assumption that rivers are barriers for these taxa and found that even relatively small rivers facilitate divergence. We then tested whether species diverged with gene flow and recovered reticulate histories for all species, including one potential case of hybrid speciation. Our results support the hypothesis that river dynamics promote speciation and reveal that many rainforest taxa are micro-endemic, unrecognized and thus threatened with imminent extinction. We propose that Amazonian hyper-diversity originates in part from fine-scale barrier displacement processes, including river dynamics, which allow small populations to differentiate and disperse into secondary contact.

Richard J Abbott ◽  
Loren H Rieseberg

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Guohong Albert Wu ◽  
Chikatoshi Sugimoto ◽  
Hideyasu Kinjo ◽  
Chika Azama ◽  
Fumimasa Mitsube ◽  

AbstractThe origin and dispersal of cultivated and wild mandarin and related citrus are poorly understood. Here, comparative genome analysis of 69 new east Asian genomes and other mainland Asian citrus reveals a previously unrecognized wild sexual species native to the Ryukyu Islands: C. ryukyuensis sp. nov. The taxonomic complexity of east Asian mandarins then collapses to a satisfying simplicity, accounting for tachibana, shiikuwasha, and other traditional Ryukyuan mandarin types as homoploid hybrid species formed by combining C. ryukyuensis with various mainland mandarins. These hybrid species reproduce clonally by apomictic seed, a trait shared with oranges, grapefruits, lemons and many cultivated mandarins. We trace the origin of apomixis alleles in citrus to mangshanyeju wild mandarins, which played a central role in citrus domestication via adaptive wild introgression. Our results provide a coherent biogeographic framework for understanding the diversity and domestication of mandarin-type citrus through speciation, admixture, and rapid diffusion of apomictic reproduction.

2021 ◽  
Vol 43 (1) ◽  

Interspecific hybridization had been long recognized as a widespread evolutionary process in vascular plants. In the present review, we summarize knowledge concerning studies of interspecific hybridization in bryophytes before and after the advent of molecular methods. The available data indicate that hybridization is an important evolutionary phenomenon among bryophytes. Evidence for hybridization events before the molecular era is mainly based on studies of intermediacy of parental morphology. The recent molecular marker technology has revolutionized studies of hybridization, generating new insights into the genetic and evolutionary consequences of homoploid and allopolyploid speciation. The current molecular approaches support the prevalence of allopolyploidy in bryophytes. However, we anticipate that homoploid hybridization is under-reported. Finally, we suggest some directions for future studies of hybrid speciation among bryophytes.

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