gene flow
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2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 70
Author(s):  
Jéssica S. Cardoso ◽  
Sâmela S. Mendes ◽  
Ana Maria Waldschmidt ◽  
Maria Aparecida Castellani ◽  
Iara S. Joachim-Bravo ◽  
...  

This study aimed at determining the population genetic structure of Mediterranean fruit flies (Ceratitis capitata) in North-eastern Brazil, so as to improve our understanding of the viability of the inter-simple sequences repeat (ISSR) markers in Brazilian populations, along with inferences on population genetic composition which can be used in management programs. For this, ISSR markers were used in groups collected from four municipalities in this region. Primers were polymorphic, revealing moderate expected heterozigosity, with 80% of the variation occurring within populations and moderate structure. Bayesian analysis revealed K = 3, consistent with pairwise FST and indicating low structure between Barra do Choça and Planalto, and moderate structure between Caraíbas and Planalto. Data indicated high diversity, suggesting two interpretations: the analyzed populations arose from a single population and are now under structuring processes, or populations had different origins, but are currently connected by gene flow. Thus, ISSR primers were affective in obtaining information about genetic structure of C. capitata populations in North-eastern Brazil, as evidenced by high polymorphism and separation or grouping of populations according to their allelic compositions. Furthermore, this paper provides useful information for understanding the genetic diversity, population structure and gene flow of C. capitata populations in this region and developing regional strategies for the control and management of the species.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jennifer E. Huffman ◽  
Guillaume Butler-Laporte ◽  
Atlas Khan ◽  
Erola Pairo-Castineira ◽  
Theodore G. Drivas ◽  
...  

AbstractThe OAS1/2/3 cluster has been identified as a risk locus for severe COVID-19 among individuals of European ancestry, with a protective haplotype of approximately 75 kilobases (kb) derived from Neanderthals in the chromosomal region 12q24.13. This haplotype contains a splice variant of OAS1, which occurs in people of African ancestry independently of gene flow from Neanderthals. Using trans-ancestry fine-mapping approaches in 20,779 hospitalized cases, we demonstrate that this splice variant is likely to be the SNP responsible for the association at this locus, thus strongly implicating OAS1 as an effector gene influencing COVID-19 severity.


2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
José Martín Pujolar ◽  
Mozes P. K. Blom ◽  
Andrew Hart Reeve ◽  
Jonathan D. Kennedy ◽  
Petter Zahl Marki ◽  
...  

AbstractTropical mountains harbor exceptional concentrations of Earth’s biodiversity. In topographically complex landscapes, montane species typically inhabit multiple mountainous regions, but are absent in intervening lowland environments. Here we report a comparative analysis of genome-wide DNA polymorphism data for population pairs from eighteen Indo-Pacific bird species from the Moluccan islands of Buru and Seram and from across the island of New Guinea. We test how barrier strength and relative elevational distribution predict population differentiation, rates of historical gene flow, and changes in effective population sizes through time. We find population differentiation to be consistently and positively correlated with barrier strength and a species’ altitudinal floor. Additionally, we find that Pleistocene climate oscillations have had a dramatic influence on the demographics of all species but were most pronounced in regions of smaller geographic area. Surprisingly, even the most divergent taxon pairs at the highest elevations experience gene flow across barriers, implying that dispersal between montane regions is important for the formation of montane assemblages.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Leeban Yusuf ◽  
Venera Tyukmaeva ◽  
Anneli Hoikkala ◽  
Michael G Ritchie

Speciation with gene flow is now widely regarded as common. However, the frequency of introgression between recently diverged species and the evolutionary consequences of gene flow are still poorly understood. The virilis group of Drosophila contains around a dozen species that are geographically widespread and show varying levels of pre-zygotic and post-zygotic isolation. Here, we utilize de novo genome assemblies and whole-genome sequencing data to resolve phylogenetic relationships and describe patterns of introgression and divergence across the group. We suggest that the virilis group consists of three, rather than the traditional two, subgroups. We found evidence of pervasive phylogenetic discordance caused by ancient introgression events between distant lineages within the group, and much more recent gene flow between closely-related species. When assessing patterns of genome-wide divergence in species pairs across the group, we found no consistent genomic evidence of a disproportionate role for the X chromosome. Some genes undergoing rapid sequence divergence across the group were involved in chemical communication and may be related to the evolution of sexual isolation. We suggest that gene flow between closely-related species has potentially had an impact on lineage-specific adaptation and the evolution of reproductive barriers. Our results show how ancient and recent introgression confuse phylogenetic reconstruction, and suggest that shared variation can facilitate adaptation and speciation.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
David J Williams ◽  
Patrick AD Grimont ◽  
Adrian Cazares ◽  
Francine Grimont ◽  
Elisabeth Ageron ◽  
...  

The genus Serratia has been studied for over a century and includes clinically-important and diverse environmental members. Despite this, there is a paucity of genomic information across the genus and a robust whole genome-based phylogenetic framework is lacking. Here, we have assembled and analysed a representative set of 664 genomes from across the genus, including 215 historic isolates originally used in defining the genus. Phylogenomic analysis of the genus reveals a clearly-defined population structure which displays deep divisions and aligns with ecological niche, as well as striking congruence between historical biochemical phenotyping data and contemporary genomics data. We show that Serratia is a diverse genus which displays striking plasticity and ability to adapt to its environment, including a highly-varied portfolio of plasmids, and provide evidence of different patterns of gene flow across the genus. This work provides an essential platform for understanding the emergence of clinical and other lineages of Serratia.


Author(s):  
Guanglin He ◽  
Yingxiang Li ◽  
Xing Zou ◽  
Hui‐Yuan Yeh ◽  
Renkuan Tang ◽  
...  
Keyword(s):  

Author(s):  
Julita Minasiewicz ◽  
Emilia Krawczyk ◽  
Joanna Znaniecka ◽  
Lucie Vincenot ◽  
Ekaterina Zheleznaya ◽  
...  

AbstractSome plants abandoned photosynthesis and developed full dependency on fungi for nutrition. Most of the so-called mycoheterotrophic plants exhibit high specificity towards their fungal partners. We tested whether natural rarity of mycoheterotrophic plants and usual small and fluctuating population size make their populations more prone to genetic differentiation caused by restricted gene flow and/or genetic drift. We also tested whether these genetic characteristics might in turn shape divergent fungal preferences. We studied the mycoheterotrophic orchid Epipogium aphyllum, addressing the joint issues of genetic structure of its populations over Europe and possible consequences for mycorrhizal specificity within the associated fungal taxa. Out of 27 sampled E. aphyllum populations, nine were included for genetic diversity assessment using nine nuclear microsatellites and plastid DNA. Population genetic structure was inferred based on the total number of populations. Individuals from 17 locations were included into analysis of genetic identity of mycorrhizal fungi of E. aphyllum based on barcoding by nuclear ribosomal DNA. Epipogium aphyllum populations revealed high genetic diversity (uHe = 0.562) and low genetic differentiation over vast distances (FST = 0.106 for nuclear microsatellites and FST = 0.156 for plastid DNA). Bayesian clustering analyses identified only two genetic clusters, with a high degree of admixture. Epipogium aphyllum genets arise from panmixia and display locally variable, but relatively high production of ramets, as shown by a low value of rarefied genotypic richness (Rr = 0.265). Epipogium aphyllum genotype control over partner selection was negligible as (1) we found ramets from a single genetic individual associated with up to 68% of the known Inocybe spp. associating with the plant species, (2) and partner identity did not show any geographic structure. The absence of mosaicism in the mycorrhizal specificity over Europe may be linked to preferential allogamous habit of E. aphyllum and significant gene flow, which tend to promote host generalism.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Theo Tricou ◽  
Eric Tannier ◽  
Damien M de Vienne

Introgression, endosymbiosis and gene transfer, i.e. Horizontal Gene Flow (HGF), are primordial sources of innovation in all domains of life. Our knowledge on HGF relies on detection methods that exploit some of its signatures left on extant genomes. One of them is the effect of HGF on branch lengths of constructed phylogenies. This signature has been formalized in statistical tests for HGF detection, and used for example to detect massive adaptive gene flows in malaria vectors or to order evolutionary events involved in eukaryogenesis. However these studies rely on the assumption that ghost lineages (all unsampled extant and extinct taxa) have little influence. We demonstrate here with simulations and data re-analysis, that when considering the more realistic condition that unsampled taxa are legion compared to sampled ones, the conclusion of these studies become unfounded or even reversed. This illustrates the necessity to recognize the existence of ghosts in evolutionary studies.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Martin Stervander ◽  
Martim Melo ◽  
Peter Jones ◽  
Bengt Hansson

Sister species occurring sympatrically on islands are rare and offer unique opportunities to understand how speciation can proceed in the face of gene flow. The São Tomé grosbeak is a massive-billed, 'giant' finch endemic to the island of São Tomé in the Gulf of Guinea, where it has diverged from its co-occurring sister species the Príncipe seedeater, an average-sized finch that also inhabits two neighbouring islands. Here, we show that the grosbeak carries a large number of unique alleles different from all three Príncipe seedeater populations, but also shares many alleles with the sympatric São Tomé population of the seedeater, a genomic signature signifying divergence in isolation as well as subsequent introgressive hybridization. Furthermore, genomic segments that remain unique to the grosbeak are situated close to genes, including genes that determine bill morphology, suggesting the preservation of adaptive variation through natural selection during divergence with gene flow. This study reveals a complex speciation process whereby genetic drift, introgression, and selection during periods of isolation and secondary contact all have shaped the diverging genomes of these sympatric island endemic finches.


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