primary production
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2022 ◽  
Vol 211 ◽  
pp. 105964
Chuanhua Li ◽  
Hao Sun ◽  
Lihui Liu ◽  
Tianbao Dou ◽  
Min Zhou ◽  

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 235
Jung-Woo Park ◽  
Yejin Kim ◽  
Kwan-Woo Kim ◽  
Amane Fujiwara ◽  
Hisatomo Waga ◽  

The northern Bering and Chukchi seas are biologically productive regions but, recently, unprecedented environmental changes have been reported. For investigating the dominant phytoplankton communities and relative contribution of small phytoplankton (<2 µm) to the total primary production in the regions, field measurements mainly for high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and size-specific primary productivity were conducted in the northern Bering and Chukchi seas during summer 2016 (ARA07B) and 2017 (OS040). Diatoms and phaeocystis were dominant phytoplankton communities in 2016 whereas diatoms and Prasinophytes (Type 2) were dominant in 2017 and diatoms were found as major contributors for the small phytoplankton groups. For size-specific primary production, small phytoplankton contributed 38.0% (SD = ±19.9%) in 2016 whereas 25.0% (SD = ±12.8%) in 2017 to the total primary productivity. The small phytoplankton contribution observed in 2016 is comparable to those reported previously in the Chukchi Sea whereas the contribution in 2017 mainly in the northern Bering Sea is considerably lower than those in other arctic regions. Different biochemical compositions were distinct between small and large phytoplankton in this study, which is consistent with previous results. Significantly higher carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) contents per unit of chlorophyll-a, whereas lower C:N ratios were characteristics in small phytoplankton in comparison to large phytoplankton. Given these results, we could conclude that small phytoplankton synthesize nitrogen-rich particulate organic carbon which could be easily regenerated.

Ecosystems ◽  
2022 ◽  
Sven Norman ◽  
Karin A. Nilsson ◽  
Marcus Klaus ◽  
David Seekell ◽  
Jan Karlsson ◽  

AbstractEcological theory predicts that the relative distribution of primary production across habitats influence fish size structure and biomass production. In this study, we assessed individual, population, and community-level consequences for brown trout (Salmo trutta) and Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) of variation in estimated habitat specific (benthic and pelagic) and total whole lake (GPPwhole) gross primary production in 27 northern oligotrophic lakes. We found that higher contribution of benthic primary production to GPPwhole was associated with higher community biomass and larger maximum and mean sizes of fish. At the population level, species-specific responses differed. Increased benthic primary production (GPPBenthic) correlated to higher population biomass of brown trout regardless of being alone or in sympatry, while Arctic char responded positively to pelagic primary production (GPPPelagic) in sympatric populations. In sympatric lakes, the maximum size of both species was positively related to both GPPBenthic and the benthic contribution to GPPWhole. In allopatric lakes, brown trout mean and maximum size and Arctic char mean size were positively related to the benthic proportion of GPPWhole. Our results highlight the importance of light-controlled benthic primary production for fish biomass production in oligotrophic northern lakes. Our results further suggest that consequences of ontogenetic asymmetry and niche shifts may cause the distribution of primary production across habitats to be more important than the total ecosystem primary production for fish size, population biomass, and production. Awareness of the relationships between light availability and asymmetric resource production favoring large fish and fish production may allow for cost-efficient and more informed management actions in northern oligotrophic lakes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Fuencisla Cañadas ◽  
Dominic Papineau ◽  
Melanie J. Leng ◽  
Chao Li

AbstractMember IV of the Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation records the recovery from the most negative carbon isotope excursion in Earth history. However, the main biogeochemical controls that ultimately drove this recovery have yet to be elucidated. Here, we report new carbon and nitrogen isotope and concentration data from the Nanhua Basin (South China), where δ13C values of carbonates (δ13Ccarb) rise from − 7‰ to −1‰ and δ15N values decrease from +5.4‰ to +2.3‰. These trends are proposed to arise from a new equilibrium in the C and N cycles where primary production overcomes secondary production as the main source of organic matter in sediments. The enhanced primary production is supported by the coexisting Raman spectral data, which reveal a systematic difference in kerogen structure between depositional environments. Our new observations point to the variable dominance of distinct microbial communities in the late Ediacaran ecosystems, and suggest that blooms of oxygenic phototrophs modulated the recovery from the most negative δ13Ccarb excursion in Earth history.

2022 ◽  
Zhibo Shao ◽  
Ya-Wei Luo

Abstract. Heterotrophic diazotrophs emerge as a potentially important contributor to the global marine N2 fixation, while the factors controlling their distribution are unclear. Here, we explored what controls the distribution of the most sampled heterotrophic diazotroph phylotype, Gamma A, in the global ocean. First, we analyzed the relationship between nifH-based Gamma A abundance and climatological biological and environmental conditions. The carrying capacity of Gamma A abundance increased with net primary production (NPP) and saturated when NPP reached ~400 mg C m−2 d−1. The reduction in Gamma A abundance from its carrying capacity was mostly related to low temperature, which possibly slowed the decomposition of organic matter, and high concentration of dissolved iron, to which the explanation was elusive but could result from the competition with autotrophic diazotrophs. Using a generalized additive model, these climatological factors together explained 41 % of the variance in the Gamma A abundance. Second, in additional to the climatological background, we found that mesoscale cyclonic eddies can substantially elevate Gamma A abundance, implying that Gamma A can respond to short-term features and benefit from stimulated primary production by nutrient inputs. Overall, our results suggest that the distribution of Gamma A is most likely determined by the supply of organic matters, not by those factors controlling autotrophic diazotrophs, and therefore insight a niche differentiation between the heterotrophic and autotrophic N2 fixation. More samplings on Gamma A and other heterotrophic diazotroph phylotypes are needed to better reveal the controlling mechanisms of heterotrophic N2 fixation in the ocean.

2022 ◽  
George Louis Vourlitis ◽  
Osvaldo Borges Pinto Jr. ◽  
Higo José Dalmagro ◽  
Paulo Arruda ◽  
Francisco de Almeida Lobo ◽  

2022 ◽  
Marcel Llavero-Pasquina ◽  
Katrin Geisler ◽  
Andre Holzer ◽  
Payam Mehrshahi ◽  
Gonzalo I Mendoza-Ochoa ◽  

Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), an essential co-factor for all species, is biosynthesised through a metabolically expensive pathway regulated by TPP riboswitches in bacteria, fungi, plants and green algae. Diatoms are microalgae responsible for approximately 20% of global primary production. They have been predicted to contain TPP aptamers in the 3'UTR of some thiamine metabolism-related genes, but little is known about their function and regulation. We used bioinformatics, antimetabolite growth assays, RT-qPCR, targeted mutagenesis and reporter constructs to test whether the predicted TPP riboswitches respond to thiamine supplementation in diatoms. Gene editing was used to investigate the functions of the genes with associated TPP riboswitches in Phaeodactylum tricornutum. We found that thiamine-related genes with putative TPP aptamers are not responsive to thiamine or its precursor 4-amino-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpyrimidine (HMP), and the targeted mutation of the TPP aptamer in the HMP-P synthase (THIC) does not deregulate thiamine biosynthesis in P. tricornutum. Through genome editing we established that PtSSSP is necessary for thiamine uptake and that PtTHIC is essential for thiamine biosynthesis. Our results highlight the importance of experimentally testing bioinformatic aptamer predictions and provide new insights into the thiamine metabolism shaping the structure of marine microbial communities with global biogeochemical importance.

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. 47-69
Paula Maria Salgado-Hernanz ◽  
Aurore Regaudie-de-Gioux ◽  
David Antoine ◽  
Gotzon Basterretxea

Abstract. We estimated pelagic primary production (PP) in the coastal (<200 m depth) Mediterranean Sea from satellite-borne data, its contribution to basin-scale carbon fixation, its variability, and long-term trends during the period 2002–2016. Annual coastal PP was estimated at 0.041 Gt C, which approximately represents 12 % of total carbon fixation in the Mediterranean Sea. About 51 % of this production occurs in the eastern basin, whereas the western and Adriatic shelves contribute with ∼25 % each of total coastal production. Strong regional variability is revealed in coastal PP, from high-production areas (>300 g C m−2) associated with major river discharges to less productive provinces (<50 g C m−2) located in the southeastern Mediterranean. PP variability in the Mediterranean Sea is dominated by interannual variations, but a notable basin-scale decline (17 %) has been observed since 2012 concurring with a period of increasing sea surface temperatures in the Mediterranean Sea and positive North Atlantic Oscillation and Mediterranean Oscillation climate indices. Long-term trends in PP reveal slight declines in most coastal areas (−0.05 to −0.1 g C m−2 per decade) except in the Adriatic where PP increases at +0.1 g C m−2 per decade. Regionalization of coastal waters based on PP seasonal patterns reveals the importance of river effluents in determining PP in coastal waters that can regionally increase up to 5-fold. Our study provides insight into the contribution of coastal waters to basin-scale carbon balances in the Mediterranean Sea while highlighting the importance of the different temporal and spatial scales of variability.

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