Lately, the Hill Pond Rice System (HPRS) is being promoted as a form of alternative farming systems in selected northern provinces of Thailand, in which the land conversion is designed to maximize rainwater harvesting in farmland consisting of forest trees, water reservoirs, paddy fields, and high-value crop cultivation to serve environmental and livelihood needs. This study employed the double-hurdle model and the tobit technique to investigate the farm-level factors associated with land conversion from maize monocropping to the HPRS using primary data collected from 253 households in Nan, Chiang Mai, Tak, and Lampang Provinces. It was found that education, farming knowledge, understanding benefits of the HPRS, access to water sources, access to advis, and workforce sharing raised the likelihood and extent of farmland conversion into the HPRS. In contrast, perceived complexity of the HPRS, experiences with negative shocks, and land tenure security lowered the likelihood and extent of land conversion. The findings suggest that on-farm collective action should be promoted to mitigate labor constraints in implementation and that access to equipment should be enhanced through HPRS advisors’ visits.
AbstractNational Capital Region (NCR, Delhi) in India is one of the fastest-growing metropolitan cities which is facing a severe water crisis due to increasing water demand. The over-extraction of groundwater, particularly from its unconsolidated alluvial deposits makes the region prone to subsidence. In this study, we investigated the effects of plummeting groundwater levels on land surface elevations in Delhi NCR using Sentinel-1 datasets acquired during the years 2014–2020. Our analysis reveals two distinct subsidence features in the study area with rates exceeding 11 cm/year in Kapashera—an urban village near IGI airport Delhi, and 3 cm/year in Faridabad throughout the study period. The subsidence in these two areas are accelerating and follows the depleting groundwater trend. The third region, Dwarka shows a shift from subsidence to uplift during the years which can be attributed to the strict government policies to regulate groundwater use and incentivizing rainwater harvesting. Further analysis using a classified risk map based on hazard risk and vulnerability approach highlights an approximate area of 100 square kilometers to be subjected to the highest risk level of ground movement, demanding urgent attention. The findings of this study are highly relevant for government agencies to formulate new policies against the over-exploitation of groundwater and to facilitate a sustainable and resilient groundwater management system in Delhi NCR.
Growing dependence on groundwater to fulfill the water demands has led to continuous depletion of groundwater levels and, consequently, poses the maintenance of optimum groundwater and management challenge. The region of South Bihar faces regular drought and flood situations, and due to the excessive pumping, the groundwater resources are declining. Rainwater harvesting has been recommended for the region; however, there are no hydrogeological studies concerning groundwater recharge. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is a managed aquifer recharge technique to store excess water in the aquifer through borewells to meet the high-water demand in the dry season. Therefore, this paper presents the hydrogeological feasibility for possible ASR installations in shallow aquifers of South Bihar with the help of flowing fluid electrical conductivity (FFEC) logging. For modeling, the well logging data of two shallow borewells (16- and 47-m depth) at Rajgir, Nalanda, were used to obtain the transmissivity and thickness of the aquifers. The estimated transmissivities were 804 m2/day with an aquifer thickness of 5 m (in between 11 and 16 m) at Ajatshatru Residential Hall (ARH) well. They were 353 and 1,154 m2/day with the aquifer thicknesses of 6 m (in between 16 and 22 m) and 2 m (in between 45 and 47 m), respectively, at Nalanda University Campus (NUC) well. Despite the acceptable transmissivities at these sites, those aquifers may not be fruitful for the medium- to large-scale (more than 100-m3/day injection rate) ASR as the thickness of the aquifers is relatively small and may not efficiently store and withdraw a large amount of water. However, these aquifers can be adequate for small (up to 20-m3/day injection rate) ASR, for example, groundwater recharge using rooftop water. For medium- to large-scale ASR, deeper aquifers need to be further explored on these sites or aquifers with similar characteristics.