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Darlaine M. Ferreira ◽  
Tiyoko N. H. Rebouças ◽  
Risely Ferraz-Almeida ◽  
John S. Porto ◽  
Roberta C. Oliveira ◽  

ABSTRACT Organomineral fertilizer has great potential to replace synthetic fertilizers. The goal of this study was to determine an optimal substitution rate of organomineral fertilizer for mineral fertilizer to increase potato yield and quality. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replicates and six treatments, namely four substitution rates of organomineral fertilizer application (25, 50, 75, and 100% of mineral fertilizer demand), one rate of mineral fertilizer application (100% of mineral fertilizer demand), and the control (no fertilizer application). The organomineral application rates were tested as an alternative to substitute 25 to 100% of mineral fertilizer. The potato yield (total and in-class) and quality and plant and soil nutrient contents were monitored. The pH and total soluble solid contents had positive correlations with yield. Potatoes accumulated higher contents of K > N > P in the leaves, stems, and tubers. The organomineral fertilizer application rate of 3.7 t ha-1 (equivalent to 100% of mineral fertilizer demand) was the optimal rate to increase potato yield and quality. Organomineral fertilizer is a viable alternative to increase potato quality and yield and to increase plant and soil nutrient contents.

Agriculture ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 115
Sicheng Du ◽  
Zhongxue Zhang ◽  
Tiecheng Li ◽  
Zhongbo Wang ◽  
Xin Zhou ◽  

Understanding the methods leading to rice yield increase is vital for sustainable agricultural development. Improving the harvest index (HI) is an important way to increase rice yield. To explore the effects of different water and nitrogen management modes on the rice HI in the black soil region of Northeast China, a field experiment was conducted in 2019 (Y1) and 2020 (Y2). Two irrigation methods, conventional flooding irrigation (FI) and controlled irrigation (CI), were established in the experiment, and four nitrogen application levels (0 kg/ha, 85 kg/ha, 110 kg/ha, and 135 kg/ha) were set during the entire growth period, named N0, N1, N2, and N3. The dry matter weight and the rice yield at the maturity stage were determined, and the HI was then calculated. The results showed that different irrigation modes and nitrogen application levels had significant effects on the rice HI. Under different irrigation modes with the same nitrogen application level during the two years, the comparison regular of HI was consistent. In Y1 and Y2, the HI of FN0 was 3.36% and 5.02% higher than that of CN0 (p < 0.05), and the HI of CN1 was 0.31% and 2.43% higher than that of FN1 (p > 0.05). The HI under CI was significantly higher than that under FI under N2 and N3 (p < 0.05), the HI of CN2 was 4.21% and 4.97% higher than that of FN2, and the HI of FN3 was 13.12% and 20.34% higher than that of CN3. In addition, during the two-year experiment, the HI first increased and then decreased with an increase in the nitrogen application rate under FI and CI. Under the FI treatments, the HI of N1 was the highest, and that of N2 was the highest under the CI treatments. A variance analysis showed that the irrigation pattern and nitrogen application level had significant interactions on the rice HI (p < 0.01), and the appropriate water and N management mode could increase rice the HI by 26.89%. The experimental results showed that the HI of the 110 kg/ha nitrogen application rate under CI was the highest, reaching 0.574 and 0.572, respectively, in two years. This study provides a data reference and theoretical support for realizing water savings, nitrogen reduction, and sustainable agricultural development in the black soil region of Northeast China.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 805
Tianjing Ren ◽  
Yu’e Li ◽  
Tiantian Miao ◽  
Waseem Hassan ◽  
Jiaqi Zhang ◽  

Excessive nitrogen fertilizer application in greenhouses could cause a significant variation in the nitrogen-use efficiency at the regional scale. This study aims to quantify agronomic nitrogen-use efficiency (AEN) and identify its driving factors across Chinese greenhouse tomato cultivation. Three hundred and forty-eight AEN values were obtained from 64 papers, including mineral nitrogen (MN) and mineral combined with organic nitrogen (MON) treatments. The average AEN values for the MN and MON treatments were 56.6 ± 7.0 kg kg−1 and 34.6 ± 3.5 kg kg−1, respectively. The AEN of the MN treatment was higher than that of the MON treatment for cultivation using soil with an organic matter content of less than 10 g kg−1 and the drip fertigation method. The AENs of the MN and MON treatments were divided into two segments according to the nitrogen application rate. The inflection points of the nitrogen application rate were 290 and 1100 kg N ha−1 for the MN and MON treatments, respectively. When the ratio of organic nitrogen to total nitrogen was less than 0.4, it was beneficial for improving the AEN. The soil organic matter content and the nitrogen application rate were the most critical factors determining the AEN. These results suggest that rationally reducing the nitrogen input and partially substituting mineral nitrogen with organic nitrogen can help improve the nitrogen-use efficiency.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Xiucheng He ◽  
Huizhen Qiu ◽  
Kuizhong Xie ◽  
Yucai Wang ◽  
Juan Hu ◽  

AbstractIsatis indigotica planting is the backbone of the medicinal industry in Hexi Oasis, Gansu. In order to solve the problems insufficient water resources and excessive application of nitrogen fertilizer in this area, this paper explored the irrigation and nitrogen levels that can meet the multiple goals of Isatis indigotica. The two-factor split-plot field experiment (2018‒2019) was conducted in Minle County, Gansu Province, China, which contains 9 treatments. There were three levels of irrigation water: W1(low), W2(medium), and W3(high). The soil moisture contents were 60–70%, 70–80%, and 80–90% of the field water-holding capacity, respectively. The nitrogen application rate was classified into three levels, N1(low), N2(medium) and N3(high), which were 150, 200 and 250 kg N/ha, respectively. The standard local irrigation water amount and nitrogen application rate corresponded to W3N3. The results showed that the yield of Isatis indigotica increased first and then decreased with the increase of irrigation amount and nitrogen application rate, the yield of W2N2 is 12.2–17.1% higher than that of W1N1, the yield of W3N3 was 12.1–17.5% lower than that of W2N2. Saving water and reducing nitrogen can improve the quality of Isatis indigotica, compared with W3N3, the indigo, indirubin, (R,S)-epigoitrin and polysaccharides of W2N2 increased by 4.5–5.9%, 2.7–3.1%, 5.2–6.0%, and 1.8–2.1%, respectively. With the increase of nitrogen application rate, the water use efficiency (WUE) first increased and then decreased, as the irrigation volume increases, WUE decreases. Compared with W3N3, the WUE of W2N2 increased by 24.3–27.2%. With the increase of water input, the nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency (NUE) first increased and then decreased, as the nitrogen application rate increases, NUE decreases. Compared with W3N3, the NUE of W2W2 increased by 31.8–34.5%. Therefore, W2N2 can improve quality and increase water and nitrogen utilization efficiency on the basis of ensuring yield.

2022 ◽  
pp. 246-255
Leonard Rusinamhodzi ◽  
James Njeru ◽  
John E. Sariah ◽  
Rama Ngatoluwa ◽  
Phlorentin P. Lagwen

Abstract Nitrogen (N) deficiency is a common feature in soils managed by smallholder farmers in Africa. Crop residue retention, in combination with no-till (NT), may be a pathway to improve agronomic use efficiency of applied N for small-scale farmers under the predominant rainfed conditions. This chapter reports on the results of a study carried out over two cropping seasons in the long rains of 2014 and 2015 on two sites: (i) on-farm (Mandela); and (ii) a research station (SARI) in eastern Tanzania. The experiment consisted of two tillage systems, conventional tillage (CT) and Conservation Agriculture (CA), with a minimum of 2.5 t ha-1 crop residue cover maintained in the plots during the experiment. CT consisted of soil inversion through tillage and removal of crop residues. In the on-farm experiment, maize was grown in plots with four rates of N application: 0, 27, 54 and 108 kg N ha-1. In the on-station trial, five rates were used: 0, 20, 40, 60 and 100 kg N ha-1. Maize yield and agronomic efficiency (AE) of N were used to assess and compare the productivity of the tested treatments. The results showed that tillage, soil type and rate of N application influenced crop productivity. In the clay soils, the differences between tillage practices were small. Under CT, AE ranged between 21.6 and 53.9 kg/kg N, and it was 20.4-60.6 kg/kg N under CA. The lowest fertilizer application rate of 27 kg ha-1 often had the largest AE across the soil types and tillage practices. In the on-station trials at SARI, the largest AE of 24.6 kg/kg N was recorded under CA with 40 kg N ha-1. As in the on-farm trials, the highest N application rate on-station did not lead to the largest AE. In the CT, AE ranged between 11.5 and 16.8 kg/kg N compared with a range of 15.1 to 24.6 kg/kg N for the CA treatment. Overall, crop residue retention, in combination with NT, is important to improve soil moisture and use efficiency of applied nutrients. Additionally, the initial soil fertility status is also important in determining the magnitude of short-term crop response to applied nutrients. Innovative pathways are needed to achieve the multiple objectives played by maize crop residues for results reported here to be sustainable. However, efficiency of nutrient use needs to be assessed, together with returns on investments, as small yields may mean high nutrient use efficiency but not necessarily significant increased returns at the farm level.

2021 ◽  
Manar Y. Amin ◽  
Abeer Omar Abotaleb ◽  
Refaat A. Mohamed

Abstract ECO2FUME gas is an alternative to toxic phosphine fumigant and as a quarantine treatment for the control of a particularly recalcitrant pest, Callosobruchus maculatus and Callosobruchus chinensis. This gas was used to fumigate stored cowpea piles under gas-proof sheets to assess its performance against different developmental stages of Callosobruchus maculatus and Callosobruchus chinensis. The mortality was determined on four developmental stages of C. maculatus and C. chinensis, employing ECO2FUME at different concentrations 25, 30, 40, and 50 g/m3 for 3-days. All stages of both insect species in packed cowpea stacks were completely controlled at 3-days when applied with an ECO2FUME application rate of 50 g/m3. Cases of pupae of C. maculatus and C. chinensis exhibit the highest resistance than other stages, with 78.2 and 73.93% mortality respectively, at 40 g/m3 after 3-days post-exposure to ECO2FUME. Suppression of F1 generation was obtained after fumigation with the same concentration (50 g/m3). Quality (in terms of cowpea germination) and all chemical constituents of cowpea seeds were non significantly (P≤0.05) affected by the fumigation concentration of 50 g/m3.

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