Essential Oil
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Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 155
Veronika Valková ◽  
Hana Ďúranová ◽  
Lucia Galovičová ◽  
Petra Borotová ◽  
Nenad L. Vukovic ◽  

Antimicrobial in vitro and in situ efficacies of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil (lemongrass, LGEO) against 17 spoilage microorganisms (bacteria, yeasts and fungi) were evaluated. Additionally, its chemical composition, and antioxidant and antibiofilm activities were investigated. The LGEO exhibited a strong antioxidant activity (84.0 ± 0.1%), and its main constituents were citral (61.5%), geraniol (6.6%) and 1,8-cineole (6.4%). An in vitro antimicrobial evaluation revealed the lowest inhibition zone (1.00 ± 0.00 mm) in Pseudomonas fluorescens, and the highest inhibition zone (18.00 ± 2.46 mm) in Candida krusei. The values for the minimal inhibitory concentration were determined to be the lowest for Salmonella enteritidis and the highest for C. albicans. Furthermore, the concentration of ≥250 µL/L of LGEO suppressed the growth of Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Penicillium expansum, Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium italicum. The changes in the molecular structure of the biofilms produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens and Salmonella enteritidis, after their treatment with LGEO, confirmed its action on both biofilm-forming bacteria. Moreover, an in situ antimicrobial activity evaluation displayed the most effective inhibitory effectiveness of LGEO against Micrococcus luteus, Serratia marcescens (250 µL/L) and Penicillium expansum (125, 250 and 500 µL/L) growing on a carrot. Our results suggest that LGEO, as a promising natural antimicrobial agent, can be applied in the innovative packaging of bakery products and different types of vegetables, which combines commonly used packing materials with the addition of LGEO.

Life ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 88
El Moussaoui Abdelfattah ◽  
Allali Aimad ◽  
Mohammed Bourhia ◽  
Khalid Chebbac ◽  
Ahmad Mohammad Salamatullah ◽  

The current study was conducted to investigate antifungal and insecticidal activities of essential oil extracted from the Moroccan Withania frutescens L. (EOW), and their chemical composition was profiled. To achieve this goal, EOW was extracted by the hydro-distillation method and their phytochemical constituents were characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses (GC-MS). Insecticidal activity was evaluated by use of four tests: contact toxicity, inhalation toxicity, and repellent tests. Antifungal activity was evaluated on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Ciceris (F. oxysporum) using different concentrations of EOW. GC/MS analysis revealed that EOW was rich in carvacrol (31.87%), thymol (30.08%), and camphor (9.13%). At a 1-µL/L dose, EOW exhibited mortality rates of 23.13 ± 1.07% and 24.41 ± 1.21% against Callosobruchus maculatus (C.maculatus) by inhalation and contact, respectively. Notably, EOW dose of 20 μL/L caused significant mortality rates of 95.1 ± 3.5% and 76.69 ± 1.71% by inhalation and contact, respectively. EOW exhibited an inhibitory effect on mycelial growth against the tested fungi F. oxysporum of 100% and 93.5 ± 1.1% for the 9 and 4.5 mg/mL doses, respectively. The reduced mycelial growth rate for F. oxysporum was recorded to be 0.3 ± 0.1 and 0.6 ± 0.1 mm/h for the EOW doses of 2.25 and 4.5 mg/mL, respectively. The outcome of the present work showed that EOW has a promising antifungal and insecticidal activity, and it can therefore be employed as a natural alternative insecticidal and mycocidal agent to replace the chemically-synthesized ones.

Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 134
Annarli O. Rodríguez-Ferreiro ◽  
Ania Ochoa-Pacheco ◽  
Daniel Méndez-Rodriguez ◽  
Emilia Ortiz-Beatón ◽  
Oneida Font-Salmo ◽  

Plectranthus neochilus Schltr. (Lamiaceae) is a plant recently introduced in Cuba. Worldwide, it is an ethnomedicinal alternative for its use against microbial infections, but the Cuban population use the extracts to treat sleep disorders. To address this apparent incongruity, four collections (from different seasonal conditions in the year) of Cuban P. neochilus cultivars were analyzed in terms of their pharmacognostic characteristics. Three extracts using fresh and dried leaves were chemically and biologically characterized. UPLC-DAD-MS/MS analysis was performed to determine their chemical composition, while a panel of nine microorganisms was used to evaluate their antimicrobial activity. Finally, cytotoxic effects of different fractions were measured in three cell lines by the resazurin viability assay. In contrast to previously reported micro and macromorphological properties of P. neochilus, the leaves from the Cuban cultivars did not present glandular trichomes, nor did they produce quantifiable levels of essential oils. Moreover, aqueous extracts used by the population revealed no significant antimicrobial activity and were not cytotoxic. The three extracts showed a similar phytochemical composition, i.e., eight flavonoids, seven abietane diterpenes, and rosmarinic acid as the major constituent, most of them reported for the first time in this species. The low yield of essential oil, the absence of glandular trichomes, compounds with a high level of oxidation, and a moderate antimicrobial activity detected were the most distinctive pharmacognostic and biological characteristics of P. neochilus grown in Cuba. These aspects could explain its non-use as an antimicrobial.

2022 ◽  
Vol 295 ◽  
pp. 110861
Paulo Ricardo Oliveira-Pinto ◽  
Nuno Mariz-Ponte ◽  
Ana Torres ◽  
Fernando Tavares ◽  
Manuel Fernandes-Ferreira ◽  

Rejane Peter ◽  
Marcelo Estrella Josende ◽  
Juliano da Silva Barreto ◽  
Dennis Guilherme da Costa Silva ◽  
Carlos Eduardo da Rosa ◽  

LWT ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 113063
Anna Carolina Leonelli Pires de Campos ◽  
Renata Daniela Saldanha Nandi ◽  
Sara Scandorieiro ◽  
Marcelly Chue Gonçalves ◽  
Guilherme Fonseca Reis ◽  

Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 166
Iolanda Corrado ◽  
Rocco Di Girolamo ◽  
Carlos Regalado-González ◽  
Cinzia Pezzella

Plant-derived essential oils (EOs) represent a green alternative to conventional antimicrobial agents in food preservation. Due to their volatility and instability, their application is dependent on the development of efficient encapsulation strategies allowing their protection and release control. Encapsulation in Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)-based nanoparticles (NPs) addresses this challenge, providing a biodegradable and biobased material whose delivery properties can be tuned by varying polymer composition. In this work, EO from Mexican oregano was efficiently encapsulated in Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyhexanoate (PHB-HHx)-based NPs by solvent evaporation technique achieving high encapsulation efficiency, (>60%) and loading capacity, (about 50%). The obtained NPs displayed a regular distribution with a size range of 150–210 nm. In vitro release studies in food simulant media were fitted with the Korsmeyer–Peppas model, indicating diffusion as the main factor controlling the release. The cumulative release was affected by the polymer composition, possibly related to the more amorphous nature of the copolymer, as confirmed by WAXS and DSC analyses. Both the EO-loaded nanosystems displayed antimicrobial activity against Micrococcus luteus, with PHB-HHx-based NPs being even more effective than the pure EO. The results open the way to the effective exploitation of the developed nanosystems in active packaging.

2022 ◽  
Vol 35 (1) ◽  
pp. 33-42
Sajad Fakhri ◽  
Safoora Jafarian ◽  
Mohammad Bagher Majnooni ◽  
Mohammad Hosein Farzaei ◽  
Ehsan Mohammadi-Noori ◽  

Miftahurrahmah Miftahurrahmah ◽  
Hasnah Ulia ◽  
Harmiwati N. H

Aquilaria Malaccensis Lam. is one of the most popular plants contains essential oil, both of them used by pharmaceutical and also cosmetic industry. The plants used in this study came from Jambi, Indonesia which is known, It’s one of the best quality agarwood in the world. This study aims to determine the best conditions for the yield so that it can be produced on an industrial scale. The study reviewed the effect of yield based on size of particles, ratio of solvent, and the operating time, maceration. The research was carried out in three steps. The first, raw material preparation, fermentation and maceration, and then evaporation. Preparation of raw materials is prepared in three variables, 2-5 cm, ±2cm, and size <40 mesh. Methanol is the solvent that will be used in multiple ratio of solvent to agarwood, its 1:7, 1:9, and 1:11(gr/ml). In addition, the maceration time was varied for each sample, 1 day, 2 days, and 3 days. Based on the research variables, obtained essential oil of agarwood dark brown in colour, with a special fragrance of agarwood. Based on the difference in particle size, it is known that size <40 mesh, yield is 3.16%, while for the larger size, 2-5 cm, the yield is 3.12%. In the variable ratio of the amount of solvent used, it is known that 1:9 (gr/ml) is the best point for yield. At maceration step known that 2-3 days, it doesn’t gives a significant change, 2.12 g for 3 days, and 1.92 g for 2 days.

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