membrane proteins
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2022 ◽  
Vol 73 ◽  
pp. 198-204
Igor A Podolsky ◽  
Elizabeth E Schauer ◽  
Susanna Seppälä ◽  
Michelle A O’Malley

2022 ◽  
Krishnendu Roy ◽  
Thomas Pucadyil

Dynamin-related protein1 (Drp1) functions to divide mitochondria and peroxisomes by binding specific adaptor proteins and lipids, both of which are integral to the limiting organellar membrane. In efforts to understand how such multivalent interactions regulate Drp1 functions, in vitro reconstitution schemes rely on recruiting soluble portions of the adaptors appended with genetically encoded polyhistidine tags onto membranes containing Ni2+-bound chelator lipids. These strategies are facile and circumvent the challenge in working with membrane proteins but assume that binding is specific to proteins carrying the polyhistidine tag. Here, we find using chelator lipids and chelator beads that both native and recombinant Drp1 directly bind Ni2+ ions. Unlike that seen with the native mitochondrial lipid cardiolipin, metal-bound chelator lipids recruit Drp1 to the membrane but is rendered functionally inactive in membrane fission. Metal-bound chelator beads also recruit Drp1 and represents a potential strategy to deplete or purify the protein from native tissue lysates.

2022 ◽  
Harresh Adikesavalu ◽  
Thangapalam Jawahar Abraham ◽  
Siddhartha Narayan Joardar

Abstract Edwardsiella tarda is considered one of the important bacterial fish pathogens. The outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of E. tarda are structurally and functionally conserved, and immunogenic. This study assessed the effects of the OMPs of E. tarda CGH9 as a vaccine without aluminium hydroxide [AH] (T1) and with AH adjuvant (T2) on the respiratory burst (ROB) activity, lymphocyte proliferation of head kidney (HK) leukocytes, and serum antibody production in pangas catfish Pangasius pangasius. The ROB activity and lymphocyte proliferation of HK leukocytes increased in both vaccinated groups compared to control. Nonetheless, the T2 group showed a gradual increase in ROB activity and lymphocyte proliferation of HK leukocytes up to 3-weeks post-vaccination (wpv). The serum antibody production in the T1 group decreased initially for up to 2-wpv and increased from 3-wpv; whereas, in the T2 group, the serum-specific antibody levels were significantly high from 1-wpv compared to control. Simultaneously, the protective efficacy in terms of relative percentage survival (RPS) in the T2 group after injecting with a lethal dose of E. tarda CGH9 was high (89.00±15.56) compared to the T1 group (78.00±0.00). Furthermore, the catfish administered with a booster dose of E. tarda OMPs with or without AH adjuvant showed no additional increase in immune response or protective immunity. These results suggested that E. tarda OMPs and AH adjuvant complex has a higher potential to induce protective immunity, which may be a good choice as a vaccine to combat E. tarda infection in catfish.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (2) ◽  
Noa Dahan ◽  
Yury S. Bykov ◽  
Elizabeth A. Boydston ◽  
Amir Fadel ◽  
Zohar Gazi ◽  

Localized translation of peroxisomal membrane proteins is crucial for cellular functions.

Wu Lichun ◽  
Yufan Sun ◽  
Mengxue Kang ◽  
Mingming Zhong ◽  
Baokun Qi ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Mujiexin Liu ◽  
Hui Chen ◽  
Dong Gao ◽  
Cai-Yi Ma ◽  
Zhao-Yue Zhang

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the most common risk factor for gastric cancer worldwide. The membrane proteins of the H. pylori are involved in bacterial adherence and play a vital role in the field of drug discovery. Thus, an accurate and cost-effective computational model is needed to predict the uncharacterized membrane proteins of H. pylori. In this study, a reliable benchmark dataset consisted of 114 membrane and 219 nonmembrane proteins was constructed based on UniProt. A support vector machine- (SVM-) based model was developed for discriminating H. pylori membrane proteins from nonmembrane proteins by using sequence information. Cross-validation showed that our method achieved good performance with an accuracy of 91.29%. It is anticipated that the proposed model will be useful for the annotation of H. pylori membrane proteins and the development of new anti-H. pylori agents.

2022 ◽  
Thi Kim Hoang Trinh ◽  
Claudio Catalano ◽  
Youzhong Guo

Membrane proteins are a ubiquitous group of bio-macromolecules responsible for many crucial biological processes and serve as drug targets for a wide range of modern drugs. Detergent-free technologies such as styrene-maleic acid lipid particles (SMALP), diisobutylene-maleic acid lipid particles (DIBMALP), and native cell membrane nanoparticles (NCMN) systems have recently emerged as revolutionary alternatives to the traditional detergent-based approaches for membrane protein research. NCMN systems aim to create a membrane-active polymer library suitable for high-resolution structure determination. Herein, we report our design, synthesis, characterization and comparative application analyses of three novel classes of NCMN polymers, NCMNP13-x, NCMNP21-x and NCMNP21b-x. Although each NCMN polymer can solubilize various model membrane proteins and conserve native lipids into NCMN particles, only the NCMNP21b-x series reveals lipid-protein particles with good buffer compatibility and high homogeneity suitable for single-particle cryo-EM analysis. Consequently, the NCMNP21b-x polymers that bring out high-quality NCMN particles are particularly attractive for membrane protein structural biology.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Richèl J. C. Bilderbeek ◽  
Maksim V. Baranov ◽  
Geert van den Bogaart ◽  
Frans Bianchi

Cytolytic T cell responses are predicted to be biased towards membrane proteins. The peptide-binding grooves of most alleles of histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) are relatively hydrophobic, therefore peptide fragments derived from human transmembrane helices (TMHs) are predicted to be presented more often as would be expected based on their abundance in the proteome. However, the physiological reason of why membrane proteins might be over-presented is unclear. In this study, we show that the predicted over-presentation of TMH-derived peptides is general, as it is predicted for bacteria and viruses and for both MHC-I and MHC-II, and confirmed by re-analysis of epitope databases. Moreover, we show that TMHs are evolutionarily more conserved, because single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are present relatively less frequently in TMH-coding chromosomal regions compared to regions coding for extracellular and cytoplasmic protein regions. Thus, our findings suggest that both cytolytic and helper T cells are more tuned to respond to membrane proteins, because these are evolutionary more conserved. We speculate that TMHs are less prone to mutations that enable pathogens to evade T cell responses.

2022 ◽  
Estelle Rascol ◽  
Anouk Dufourquet ◽  
Rim Baccouch ◽  
Pierre Soule ◽  
Isabel Alves

Abstract Several biochemical and biophysical methods are available to determine dissociation constants between a biological target and its ligands. Most of them require purification, labelling or surface immobilisation. However, these measurements remain challenging concerning membrane proteins because purification requires their extraction from the native lipid environment using different approaches, a process that may impact receptor conformation and functionality. We have developed a novel experimental procedure to determine binding affinities of a ligand to a membrane protein, the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R), directly from cell membrane fragments, using microscale thermophoresis (MST). Two main challenges had to be overcome: to determine the concentration of dopamine D2R in the crude sample; to find ways to minimize or account for non-specific binding of the ligand to cell fragments. Using MST, we were able to determine the D2R concentration in cell membrane fragments to be about 36.8 ± 2.6 pmol/mg. Then titration curves allowed the determination of a KD about 5.3 ± 1.7 nM, that is very close to the reported value. Important details of the experimental procedure are detailed to allow the transposition of this novel method to various membrane proteins.

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