lethal dose
Recently Published Documents





2025 ◽  
Vol 74 (10) ◽  
pp. 6140-2025

Insects perfectly fit the flagship principle of animal research – 3R: to reduce (the number of animals), to replace (animals with alternative models) and to refine (methods). Bees have the most important advantages of a model organism: they cause minimal ethical controversy, they have a small and fully known genome, and they permit the use of many experimental techniques. Bees have a fully functional DNMT toolkit. Therefore, they are used as models in biomedical/genetic research, e.g. in research on the development of cancer or in the diagnostics of mental and neuroleptic diseases in humans. The reversion of aging processes in bees offers hope for progress in gerontology research. The cellular mechanisms of learning and memory coding, as well as the indicators of biochemical immunity parameters, are similar or analogous to those in humans, so bees may become useful in monitoring changes in behavior and metabolism. Bees are very well suited for studies on the dose of the substance applied to determine the lethal dose or the effect of a formula on life expectancy. Honeybees have proven to be an effective tool for studying the effects of a long-term consumption of stimulants, as well as for observing behavioral changes and developing addictions at the individual and social levels, as well as for investigating the effects of continuously delivering the same dose of a substance. The genomic and physiological flexibility of bees in dividing tasks among workers in a colony makes it possible to create a Single- Cohort Colony (SCC) in which peers compared perform different tasks. Moreover behavioral methods (e.g. Proboscis Extension Reflex – PER, Sting Extension Reflex – SER, free flying target discrimination tasks or the cap pushing response) make it possible to analyse changes occurring in honeybee brains during learning and remembering. Algorithms of actions are created based on the behavior of a colony or individual, e.g. Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm (ABCA). Honeybees are also model organisms for profiling the so-called intelligence of a swarm or collective intelligence. Additionally, they serve as models for guidance systems and aviation technologies. Bees have inspired important projects in robotics, such as B-droid, Robobee and The Green Brain Project. It has also been confirmed that the apian sense of smell can be used to detect explosive devices, such as TNT, or drugs (including heroin, cocaine, amphetamines and cannabis). This inconspicuous little insect can revolutionize the world of science and contribute to the solution of many scientific problems as a versatile model.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 559
Karim Samy El-Said ◽  
Shaimaa Hussein ◽  
Barakat M. Alrashdi ◽  
Heba A. Mahmoud ◽  
Mahrous A. Ibrahim ◽  

Heavy metals intoxication causes several health problems that necessitate finding new protective and therapeutic approaches. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of Musa sp. leaves extract (MLE) on hepato-renal toxicities induced by cadmium (Cd) in male mice. The phytochemical screening, metal chelating activity (MCA), and the median lethal dose (LD50) of MLE were determined. Fifty CD-1 male mice were used and intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with MLE (1000 to 5000 mg/kg b.wt) for MLE LD50 determination. Another 50 mice were used for evaluating the effect of MLE on Cd toxicity. Blood samples were collected for hematological, liver, and kidney functions assessments. Liver tissue homogenates were used for determination of oxidant/antioxidant parameters. Liver and kidney tissues were harvested for histopathological and molecular investigations. MLE showed potent in vitro antioxidant activities. The MCA and LD50 of the MLE were 75 µg/mL and 3000 mg/kg b.wt, respectively. MLE showed beneficial therapeutic activity against hepato-renal toxicities in Cd-intoxicated mice, evidenced by improving the hematological, biochemical, histopathological, and molecular alterations.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 538
Jiale Gao ◽  
Nuoya Liu ◽  
Xiaomeng Zhang ◽  
En Yang ◽  
Yuzhu Song ◽  

Amanita poisoning is one of the most deadly types of mushroom poisoning. α-Amanitin is the main lethal toxin in amanita, and the human-lethal dose is about 0.1 mg/kg. Most of the commonly used detection techniques for α-amanitin require expensive instruments. In this study, the α-amanitin aptamer was selected as the research object, and the stem-loop structure of the original aptamer was not damaged by truncating the redundant bases, in order to improve the affinity and specificity of the aptamer. The specificity and affinity of the truncated aptamers were determined using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), and the affinity and specificity of the aptamers decreased after truncation. Therefore, the original aptamer was selected to establish a simple and specific magnetic bead-based enzyme linked immunoassay (MELISA) method for α-amanitin. The detection limit was 0.369 μg/mL, while, in mushroom it was 0.372 μg/mL and in urine 0.337 μg/mL. Recovery studies were performed by spiking urine and mushroom samples with α-amanitin, and these confirmed the desirable accuracy and practical applicability of our method. The α-amanitin and aptamer recognition sites and binding pockets were investigated in an in vitro molecular docking environment, and the main binding bases of both were T3, G4, C5, T6, T7, C67, and A68. This study truncated the α-amanitin aptamer and proposes a method of detecting α-amanitin.

2022 ◽  
Harresh Adikesavalu ◽  
Thangapalam Jawahar Abraham ◽  
Siddhartha Narayan Joardar

Abstract Edwardsiella tarda is considered one of the important bacterial fish pathogens. The outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of E. tarda are structurally and functionally conserved, and immunogenic. This study assessed the effects of the OMPs of E. tarda CGH9 as a vaccine without aluminium hydroxide [AH] (T1) and with AH adjuvant (T2) on the respiratory burst (ROB) activity, lymphocyte proliferation of head kidney (HK) leukocytes, and serum antibody production in pangas catfish Pangasius pangasius. The ROB activity and lymphocyte proliferation of HK leukocytes increased in both vaccinated groups compared to control. Nonetheless, the T2 group showed a gradual increase in ROB activity and lymphocyte proliferation of HK leukocytes up to 3-weeks post-vaccination (wpv). The serum antibody production in the T1 group decreased initially for up to 2-wpv and increased from 3-wpv; whereas, in the T2 group, the serum-specific antibody levels were significantly high from 1-wpv compared to control. Simultaneously, the protective efficacy in terms of relative percentage survival (RPS) in the T2 group after injecting with a lethal dose of E. tarda CGH9 was high (89.00±15.56) compared to the T1 group (78.00±0.00). Furthermore, the catfish administered with a booster dose of E. tarda OMPs with or without AH adjuvant showed no additional increase in immune response or protective immunity. These results suggested that E. tarda OMPs and AH adjuvant complex has a higher potential to induce protective immunity, which may be a good choice as a vaccine to combat E. tarda infection in catfish.

2022 ◽  
Freylan Mena ◽  
Seiling Vargas ◽  
Meyer Guevara-Mora ◽  
J. Mauro Vargas-Hernández ◽  
Clemens Ruepert

Abstract The estuarine ecosystem of Laguna Madre de Dios (LMD), in the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica, is exposed to contamination with pesticide residues coming from the upstream agricultural areas. Biomarkers can provide a better indication of the fitness of biota in real mixture exposure scenarios than traditional lethal dose toxicity measurements. Here, we measured biomarkers of biotransformation, oxidative stress and neurotoxicity on Astyanax aeneus, an abundant fish species in LMD. Glutathione S-transferase activity (GST), catalase activity (CAT), lipid peroxidation (LPO), and cholinesterase activity (ChE) were measured in fish collected during seven sampling campaigns, carried out between 2016 and 2018. Pesticide residues were analysed in surface water samples collected every time fish were sampled. Residues of 25 pesticides, including fungicides, insecticides and herbicides, were detected. The biomarkers measured in A. aeneus varied along the sampling moments, however, biotransformation and oxidative stress signals showed coupled responses throughout the assessment. Furthermore, significant correlations were established between three biomarkers (GST, LPO and CAT) and individual pesticides, as well as between GST and LPO with groups of pesticides with shared biocide action. Among pesticides, insecticide residues had a major influence on the responses observed in fish. This work shows that the frequent exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of pesticides can be related to physiological responses in fish that affect their health. This early warning information should be considered to improve the protection of estuarine ecosystems in the tropics.

Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 76
Albert Bolatchiev

The antimicrobial peptides human Beta-defensin-3 (hBD-3) and Epinecidin-1 (Epi-1; by Epinephelus coioides) could be a promising tool to develop novel antibacterials to combat antibiotic resistance. The antibacterial activity of Epi-1 + vancomycin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (22 isolates) and Epi-1 + hBD-3 against carbapenem-resistant isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 23), Klebsiella aerogenes (n = 17), Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 9), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 13) was studied in vitro. To evaluate the in vivo efficacy of hBD-3 and Epi-1, ICR (CD-1) mice were injected intraperitoneally with a lethal dose of K. pneumoniae or P. aeruginosa. The animals received a single injection of either sterile saline, hBD-3 monotherapy, meropenem monotherapy, hBD-3 + meropenem, or hBD-3 + Epi-1. Studied peptides showed antibacterial activity in vitro against all studied clinical isolates in a concentration of 2 to 32 mg/L. In both experimental models of murine sepsis, an increase in survival rate was seen with hBD-3 monotherapy, hBD-3 + meropenem, and hBD-3 + Epi-1. For K. pneumoniae-sepsis, hBD-3 was shown to be a promising option in overcoming the resistance of Klebsiella spp. to carbapenems, though more research is needed. In the P. aeruginosa-sepsis model, the addition of Epi-1 to hBD-3 was found to have a slightly reduced mortality rate compared to hBD-3 monotherapy.

Viruses ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 98
Gautier Gilliaux ◽  
Daniel Desmecht

Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) infection brings a wide spectrum of clinical outcomes, from a mild cold to severe bronchiolitis or even acute interstitial pneumonia. Among the known factors influencing this clinical diversity, genetic background has often been mentioned. In parallel, recent evidence has also pointed out that an early infectious experience affects heterologous infections severity. Here, we analyzed the importance of these two host-related factors in shaping the immune response in pneumoviral disease. We show that a prior gammaherpesvirus infection improves, in a genetic background-dependent manner, the immune system response against a subsequent lethal dose of pneumovirus primary infection notably by inducing a systematic expansion of the CD8+ bystander cell pool and by modifying the resident alveolar macrophages (AMs) phenotype to induce immediate cyto/chemokinic responses upon pneumovirus exposure, thereby drastically attenuating the host inflammatory response without affecting viral replication. Moreover, we show that these AMs present similar rapid and increased production of neutrophil chemokines both in front of pneumoviral or bacterial challenge, confirming recent studies attributing a critical antibacterial role of primed AMs. These results corroborate other recent studies suggesting that the innate immunity cells are themselves capable of memory, a capacity hitherto reserved for acquired immunity.

Laurie C. Dolan ◽  
Benjamin G. Arceneaux ◽  
Kyung-Hyo Do ◽  
Wan-Kyu Lee ◽  
Geun-Yeong Park ◽  

AbstractWeissella cibaria belongs to the Lactobacillaceae family and has been isolated from traditional fermented foods and saliva of children with good oral health. Previous investigations have shown that W. cibaria CMU (Chonnam Medical University) is expected to be safe based on results of in silico and in vitro analyses. However, there is a lack of studies assessing its safety in vivo. A toxicological safety evaluation of W. cibaria CMU was performed using an acute oral safety study in rats, a 14-day oral range finding study, a subsequent 13-week oral toxicity study in rats and a genetic toxicity battery (in vitro bacterial reverse mutation, in vitro chromosome aberration in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells and in vivo micronucleus study in mice). The results of the studies in rats showed that the acute lethal dose of W. cibaria CMU is > 5000 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day (1.8 × 109 CFU/kg bw/day) and the 14-day or 13-week no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) is 5000 mg/kg bw/day (1.8 × 109 CFU/kg bw/day), the highest dose administered. W. cibaria CMU was non-mutagenic in the bacterial reverse mutation test and non-clastogenic or aneugenic in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, the toxicological studies performed demonstrated W. cibaria CMU to be a safe strain to consume. This study is the first study examining the potential of a W. cibaria strain to cause genetic toxicity and subchronic toxicity in rats according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development guidelines.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Yan-Yu Zhang ◽  
Yu-Feng Huang ◽  
Jie Liang ◽  
Hua Zhou

Abstract Background Up-and-down procedure (UDP) was recommended to replace traditional acute toxicity methods. However, it was limited due to the long experimental period (20–42 days). To improve UDP, an improved UDP method (iUDP) was developed by shortening observation time between sequence dosages. The aim of this study was to test the reliability of iUDP to provide a reliable method for the acute toxicity measurement of valuable or minor amount compounds. Methods Oral median lethal dose (LD50) of nicotine, sinomenine hydrochloride and berberine hydrochloride were measured both by iUDP and modified Karber method (mKM). Results LD50 of the three alkaloids measured by iUDP with 23 mice were 32.71 ± 7.46, 453.54 ± 104.59, 2954.93 ± 794.88 mg/kg, respectively. LD50 of the three alkaloids measured by mKM with 240 mice were 22.99 ± 3.01, 456.56 ± 53.38, 2825.53 ± 1212.92 mg/kg, respectively. The average time consumed by the two methods were 22 days and 14 days respectively. Total grams of the alkaloids used by the two methods were 0.0082 and 0.0673 (nicotine), 0.114 and 1.24 (sinomenine hydrochloride), 1.9 and 12.7 (berberine hydrochloride). Conclusion iUDP could replace mKM to detect acute toxicity of substances with comparable and reliable result. And it is suitable for valuable or minor amount substances.

2022 ◽  
Vol 28 (1) ◽  
María Isabel López-Martínez ◽  
Alejandrina Robledo-Paz ◽  
Luis Antonio Flores-Hernández ◽  
Tarsicio Corona-Torres ◽  

Developing new varieties of anthurium by hybridization can take 8-10 years; therefore, induced mutagenesis can be an alternative strategy to hybridization. The objective of this work was to induce mutations in A. andreanum by exposing explants obtained from vitroplants to colchicine. Explants of leaves, nodes and roots obtained from vitroplants were exposed to 0.1 % colchicine for 0, 2, 3 and 4 h. The mean lethal dose (LD50), survival, number of explants that generated callus, number of explants that formed shoots and the number of shoots per explant were evaluated. The karyotype of the presumed mutated regenerated plants was determined by the root apex squash technique. The leaves showed the highest sensitivity to cochicine. The survival of the root explants treated with colchicine was 100 %; 4 % of roots exposed for 2 and 3 h formed adventitious shoots (120 shoots). For nodes, the LD50 was found at 3.98 h; 76 and 56 % of the nodes cultivated for 2 and 3 h with colchicine formed adventitious shoots (4.4 and 3.6 shoots). The plants regenerated from the explants exposed to colchicine showed morphological changes. The chromosomal number of the regenerated vitroplants from the explants exposed for 2 and 3 h to colchicine was 2n = 29, while that of those obtained from the explants that remained on the colchicine for 4 h was 2n = 31. The sensitivity to colchicine was a function of the type of explant and the dose used. Colchicine caused the loss (monosomy) or gain of chromosomes (trisomy).

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document