Cell Responses
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2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (2) ◽  
pp. 105-118
Wei Zhan ◽  
Todd Hatchette ◽  
Fengyun Yue ◽  
Jun Liu ◽  
Haihan Song ◽  

Background: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous primary immunodeficiency characterized by low serum antibody levels and recurrent infections. The cellular response to immunization in patients with CVID has not been fully investigated. In this study, we aimed to characterize vaccination-induced influenza-specific memory B-cell responses in CVID. Methods: Eleven individuals affected with CVID and 9 unaffected control individuals were immunized with the 2010-2011 non-adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccine. Blood samples were collected on the day of vaccination and at week 8 and week 16 after vaccination, and PBMCs were immunophenotyped by flow cytometry. Influenza specific serology was determined using hemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization against vaccine antigens. Influenza-specific memory B-cell responses were determined by ELISpot.  Results: Individuals with CVID showed wide variability in the frequency of CD19+ B cells in blood. The CVID group had significantly reduced frequencies of CD19+CD27+ memory B cells. Frequencies of circulating T follicular helper (CD4+CXCR5+) cells were similar between those with CVID and healthy controls. In terms of serology, compared to healthy controls, the CVID group overall showed significantly reduced boosting to vaccine antigens by hemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization assays at 8 weeks compared to controls and failed to maintain responses by 16 weeks compared to controls, resulting in a post-vaccination geometric mean titer (GMT) ≥ 40 to strain A/H1N1 in only 27% at 8 weeks, and 22% at 12 weeks for patients with CVID vs 78% and 75%, respectively for healthy controls. In addition, there was a GMT ≥ 40 to A/H3N2 in only 9% at 8 weeks and 22% at 12 weeks for patients with CVID vs 56% and 50%, respectively for healthy controls. Healthy participants showed significant increases in flu-specific IgM-secreting memory B cells after vaccination, whereas patients with CVID showed non-significant mild increases. Before vaccination, patients with CVID had significantly lower frequencies of background level influenza-specific IgG and IgA memory B cells. Half of the patients with CVID showed an increase in influenza-specific IgG-secreting memory B cells post vaccination, whereas the other half showed none. All control participants exhibited an increase in influenza-specific IgG-secreting B cells. None of the patients with CVID developed influenza-specific IgA memory B-cell response post vaccination, compared to 5/8 in healthy controls. At week 16, the frequency of influenza-specific memory B-cell responses decayed but to non-zero baseline in healthy controls and to zero baseline in patients with CVID.  Conclusions: Together, these data demonstrate that patients with CVID respond heterogeneously, but as a group poorly, to non-adjuvanted influenza vaccine, with a subgroup unable to generate influenza-specific memory B-cell responses. No patient with CVID was able to maintain memory response for prolonged periods. Together, our results suggest a defect in Ig class switching and memory B-cell maintenance in patients with CVID during a de novo vaccine immune response.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (10) ◽  
pp. e0259158
Runa Kuley ◽  
Kevin E. Draves ◽  
Deborah H. Fuller ◽  
Natalia V. Giltiay ◽  
Edward A. Clark ◽  

Mice lacking B cells are more susceptible to S. typhimurium infection. How B cells contribute to protective immunity against Salmonella and what signals drive their activation are still unclear. Neutrophils (Nphs), monocytes (MOs), and dendritic cells (DCs) are involved in early immune responses to control the initial replication of S. typhimurium. These cells can produce B cell activating factor (BAFF) required for mature B cell survival and may help regulate B cell responses during Salmonella infection. Using BAFF reporter mice (BAFF-RFP+/-), we discovered that an i.p. infection with a virulent strain of S. typhimurium increased BAFF expression in splenic conventional DCs (cDC) and inflammatory Ly6Chi MOs/DCs four days post-infection. S. typhimurium infection induced the release of BAFF from Nphs, a decrease of BAFF-RFP expression and expansion of BAFF-RFP+ Nphs in the spleen and peritoneal cavity. After S. typhimurium infection, serum BAFF levels and immature and mature B cell subsets and plasma cells increased substantially. Conditional knockout (cKO) mice lacking BAFF in either Nphs or cDCs compared to control Bafffl/fl mice had reduced up-regulation of systemic BAFF levels and reduced expansion of mature and germinal center B cell subsets after infection. Importantly, the cKO mice lacking BAFF from either Nphs or cDCs had impaired induction of Salmonella-specific IgM Abs, and were more susceptible to S. typhimurium infection. Thus, Nphs and cDCs are major cellular sources of BAFF driving B cell responses, required for mounting optimal protective immunity against lethal Salmonella infection.

Nature Cancer ◽  
2021 ◽  
Annika Fendler ◽  
Scott T. C. Shepherd ◽  
Lewis Au ◽  
Katalin A. Wilkinson ◽  
Mary Wu ◽  

AbstractCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) antiviral response in a pan-tumor immune monitoring (CAPTURE) (NCT03226886) is a prospective cohort study of COVID-19 immunity in patients with cancer. Here we evaluated 585 patients following administration of two doses of BNT162b2 or AZD1222 vaccines, administered 12 weeks apart. Seroconversion rates after two doses were 85% and 59% in patients with solid and hematological malignancies, respectively. A lower proportion of patients had detectable titers of neutralizing antibodies (NAbT) against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern (VOC) versus wild-type (WT) SARS-CoV-2. Patients with hematological malignancies were more likely to have undetectable NAbT and had lower median NAbT than those with solid cancers against both SARS-CoV-2 WT and VOC. By comparison with individuals without cancer, patients with hematological, but not solid, malignancies had reduced neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses. Seroconversion showed poor concordance with NAbT against VOC. Previous SARS-CoV-2 infection boosted the NAb response including against VOC, and anti-CD20 treatment was associated with undetectable NAbT. Vaccine-induced T cell responses were detected in 80% of patients and were comparable between vaccines or cancer types. Our results have implications for the management of patients with cancer during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Jennifer Currenti ◽  
Becker M.P. Law ◽  
Kai Qin ◽  
Mina John ◽  
Mark A. Pilkinton ◽  

Loss of T cell immunogenicity due to mutations in virally encoded epitopes is a well-described adaptation strategy to limit host anti-viral immunity. Another described, but less understood, adaptation strategy involves the selection of mutations within epitopes that retain immune recognition, suggesting a benefit for the virus despite continued immune pressure (termed non-classical adaptation). To understand this adaptation strategy, we utilized a single cell transcriptomic approach to identify features of the HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses targeting non-adapted (NAE) and adapted (AE) forms of epitopes containing a non-classical adaptation. T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire and transcriptome were obtained from antigen-specific CD8+ T cells of chronic (n=7) and acute (n=4) HIV-infected subjects identified by either HLA class I tetramers or upregulation of activation markers following peptide stimulation. CD8+ T cells were predominantly dual tetramer+, confirming a large proportion of cross-reactive TCR clonotypes capable of recognizing the NAE and AE form. However, single-reactive CD8+ T cells were identified in acute HIV-infected subjects only, providing the potential for the selection of T cell clones over time. The transcriptomic profile of CD8+ T cells was dependent on the autologous virus: subjects whose virus encoded the NAE form of the epitope (and who transitioned to the AE form at a later timepoint) exhibited an ‘effective’ immune response, as indicated by expression of transcripts associated with polyfunctionality, cytotoxicity and apoptosis (largely driven by the genes GZMB, IFNɣ, CCL3, CCL4 and CCL5). These data suggest that viral adaptation at a single amino acid residue can provide an alternative strategy for viral survival by modulating the transcriptome of CD8+ T cells and potentially selecting for less effective T cell clones from the acute to chronic phase.

Blood ◽  
2021 ◽  
Ebba Sohlberg ◽  
Aline Pfefferle ◽  
Eivind Heggernes Ask ◽  
Astrid Tschan-Plessl ◽  
Benedikt Jacobs ◽  

Neutrophils have been suggested to play a critical role in terminal differentiation of NK cells. Whether this is a direct effect or a consequence of global immune changes with effects on NK cell homeostasis remains unknown. Here, we used high-resolution flow- and mass cytometry to examine NK cell repertoires in 64 patients with neutropenia and 27 healthy age- and gender-matched donors. A subgroup of patients with chronic neutropenia showed severely disrupted NK cell homeostasis manifested as increased frequencies of CD56bright NK cells and a lack of mature CD56dim NK cells. These immature NK cell repertoires were characterized by expression of proliferation/exhaustion markers Ki-67, Tim-3 and TIGIT and displayed blunted tumor target cell responses. Systems-level immune mapping revealed that the changes in immunophenotypes were confined to NK cells, leaving T cell differentiation intact. RNA sequencing of NK cells from these patients showed upregulation of a network of genes, including TNFSF9, CENPF, MKI67 and TOP2A, associated with apoptosis and the cell cycle, different from conventional CD56bright signatures. Profiling of 249 plasma proteins showed a coordinated enrichment of pathways related to apoptosis and cell turnover, which correlated with immature NK cell repertoires. Notably, most of these patients exhibited severe-grade neutropenia, suggesting that the profoundly altered NK cell homeostasis was connected to the severity of their underlying etiology. Hence, although our data suggests that neutrophils are dispensable for NK cell development and differentiation, some patients displayed a specific gap in the NK repertoire, associated with poor cytotoxic function and more severe disease manifestations.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Oluwatoyin Akinfenwa ◽  
Huey-Jy Huang ◽  
Birgit Linhart ◽  
Margarete Focke-Tejkl ◽  
Susanne Vrtala ◽  

IgE-mediated allergy to birch pollen affects more than 100 million patients world-wide. Bet v 1, a 17 kDa protein is the major allergen in birch pollen responsible for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma in birch pollen allergic patients. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) based on therapeutic administration of Bet v 1-containing vaccines is an effective treatment for birch pollen allergy but no allergen-specific forms of prevention are available. We developed a mouse model for IgE sensitization to Bet v 1 based on subcutaneous injection of aluminum-hydroxide adsorbed recombinant Bet v 1 and performed a detailed characterization of the specificities of the IgE, IgG and CD4+ T cell responses in sensitized mice using seven synthetic peptides of 31-42 amino acids length which comprised the Bet v 1 sequence and the epitopes recognized by human CD4+ T cells. We then d.emonstrate that preventive systemic administration of a mix of synthetic non-allergenic Bet v 1 peptides to 3-4 week old mice significantly reduced allergic immune responses, including IgE, IgG, IgE-mediated basophil activation, CD4+ T cell and IL-4 responses to the complete Bet v 1 allergen but not to the unrelated major grass pollen allergen Phl p 5, without inducing Bet v 1-specific allergic sensitization or adaptive immunity. Our results thus demonstrate that early preventive administration of non-allergenic synthetic T cell epitope-containing allergen peptides could be a safe strategy for the prevention of allergen-specific IgE sensitization.

Viruses ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (11) ◽  
pp. 2143
Fabiana Gil Melgaço ◽  
Tamiris Azamor ◽  
Livia Melo Villar ◽  
Ana Paula Dinis Ano Bom ◽  
Juliana Gil Melgaço

Vaccines to prevent the impact of SARS-CoV-2 are now available, including for patients with autoimmune diseases. However, there is no information about how inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) treatment could impact the cellular and humoral immune responses. This study evaluated SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral and cellular responses after vaccination with a two-dose schedule in a Crohn’s disease patient treated with Infliximab (10 mg/kg); we included comparisons with a monozygotic twin. The results showed that the Crohn’s disease’s twin (twin 2) had no antibody detection and reduced activation of CD4+ T cell responses, unlike the twin without the autoimmune disease (twin 1). Twin 2 developed antigen-specific central memory CD8+ T-cells and IFNγ production after the second dose of COVID-19 vaccination, similar to twin 1. These findings elucidated the role of T-cell immunity after COVID-19 immunization on IBD patients despite the lack of antibody production. Finally, our observation supports the consensus recommendation for IBD patients to receive COVID-19 vaccines.

npj Vaccines ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
Tomotaka Okamura ◽  
Yuya Shimizu ◽  
Masamitsu N. Asaka ◽  
Tomohiro Kanuma ◽  
Yusuke Tsujimura ◽  

AbstractThe use of an adjuvant in vaccination is thought to be effective for enhancing immune responses to various pathogens. We genetically constructed a live attenuated simian human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) to express the adjuvant molecule Ag85B (SHIV-Ag85B). SHIV-Ag85B could not be detected 4 weeks after injection in cynomolgus macaques, and strong SHIV-specific T cell responses were induced in these macaques. When the macaques in which SHIV-Ag85B had become undetectable were challenged with pathogenic SHIV89.6P at 37 weeks after SHIV-Ag85B had become undetectable, SHIV89.6P was not detected after the challenge. Eradication of SHIV89.6P was confirmed by adoptive transfer experiments and CD8-depletion studies. The SHIV-Ag85B-inoculated macaques showed enhancement of Gag-specific monofunctional and polyfunctional CD8+ T cells in the acute phase of the pathogenic SHIV challenge. The results suggest that SHIV-Ag85B elicited strong sterile immune responses against pathogenic SHIV and that it may lead to the development of a vaccine for AIDS virus infection.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Dawling A. Dionisio-Santos ◽  
Berke Karaahmet ◽  
Elizabeth K. Belcher ◽  
Laura D. Owlett ◽  
Lee A. Trojanczyk ◽  

Neuroinflammation driven by the accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) can lead to neurofibrillary tangle formation in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). To test the hypothesis that an anti-inflammatory immunomodulatory agent might have beneficial effects on amyloid and tau pathology, as well as microglial phenotype, we evaluated glatiramer acetate (GA), a multiple sclerosis drug thought to bias type 2 helper T (Th2) cell responses and alternatively activate myeloid cells. We administered weekly subcutaneous injections of GA or PBS to 15-month-old 3xTg AD mice, which develop both amyloid and tau pathology, for a period of 8 weeks. We found that subcutaneous administration of GA improved behavioral performance in novel object recognition and decreased Aβ plaque in the 3xTg AD mice. Changes in tau phosphorylation were mixed with specific changes in phosphoepitopes seen in immunohistochemistry but not observed in western blot. In addition, we found that there was a trend toward increased microglia complexity in 3xTg mice treated with GA, suggesting a shift toward homeostasis. These findings correlated with subtle changes in the microglial transcriptome, in which the most striking difference was the upregulation of Dcstamp. Lastly, we found no evidence of changes in proportions of major helper T cell (Th) subtypes in the periphery. Overall, our study provides further evidence for the benefits of immunomodulatory therapies that alter the adaptive immune system with the goal of modifying microglia responses for the treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (10) ◽  
pp. e1010006
Laëtitia Trapp-Fragnet ◽  
Julia Schermuly ◽  
Marina Kohn ◽  
Luca D. Bertzbach ◽  
Florian Pfaff ◽  

Marek’s disease virus (MDV) is an alphaherpesvirus that causes immunosuppression and deadly lymphoma in chickens. Lymphoid organs play a central role in MDV infection in animals. B-cells in the bursa of Fabricius facilitate high levels of MDV replication and contribute to dissemination at early stages of infection. Several studies investigated host responses in bursal tissue of MDV-infected chickens; however, the cellular responses specifically in bursal B-cells has never been investigated. We took advantage of our recently established in vitro infection system to decipher the cellular responses of bursal B-cells to infection with a very virulent MDV strain. Here, we demonstrate that MDV infection extends the survival of bursal B-cells in culture. Microarray analyses revealed that most cytokine/cytokine-receptor-, cell cycle- and apoptosis-associated genes are significantly down-regulated in these cells. Further functional assays validated these strong effects of MDV infections on cell cycle progression and thus, B-cell proliferation. In addition, we confirmed that MDV infections protect B-cells from apoptosis and trigger an accumulation of the autophagy marker Lc3-II. Taken together, our data indicate that MDV-infected bursal B-cells show hallmarks of a senescence-like phenotype, leading to a prolonged B-cell survival. This study provides an in-depth analysis of bursal B-cell responses to MDV infection and important insights into how the virus extends the survival of these cells.

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