Solid Waste
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2021 ◽  
Giulliana Mondelli ◽  
Mariana Barbosa Juarez ◽  
Christiane Jacinto ◽  
Márcio Adilson de Oliveira ◽  
Lúcia Helena Gomes de Coelho ◽  

Abstract This paper presents the characterization of municipal solid waste (MSW) randomly collected from two Material Recovery Facilities in São Paulo city, before (input - recyclables) and after (output - rejects) the sorting processes. Geo-environmental and geotechnical tests were performed on shredded samples and a digestion method was applied to detect the metals As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations using ICP OES. The objective was to assist future activities of integrated solid waste management and soil pollution. Results showed different particle sizes comparing the input (44.6%) and the output MSW (75.1%) passing through the 100 mm sieve. Organic matter and ash contents indicated the influence of inorganic carbon due to plastics' presence, with values varying between 6-13%. The pH values obtained were neutral and the electrical conductivity of the MSW rejects suggested a higher amount of ions, with values above 1000 µS/cm. Metals analyses show that Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn are present in high concentrations, depending on the types of the materials. Standard Proctor compaction curves yielded maximum dry unit weight varying from 6.6 kN/m³ to 10.0 kN/m³ and optimum moisture contents from 20–42%. Cohesion ranged from 1.3 kPa to 31.3 kPa and friction angle from 3.2° and 42.9°. The results are comparable with those obtained for other countries using different MSW treatments and contribute to the data basis for MSW from the selective collection, aiming the integrated solid waste management, serving for other countries that adopt MSW sorting and recycling.

2021 ◽  
pp. 0734242X2110619
Nzanthung Ngullie ◽  
Krishna Chaitanya Maturi ◽  
Ajay S Kalamdhad ◽  
Boeing Laishram

This research aims at investigating the interrelationships between critical success factors (CSFs) in municipal solid waste management (MSWM) projects taken up in public–private partnership (PPP) mode in India and studies the extent to which they can affect project success. A three-step procedure was followed to identify the CSFs in MSWM. A conceptual structural equation model (SEM) was developed using cluster groupings of the identified CSFs to show their interrelationships. Data collection from the public sector and private sector waste management managers was done through a questionnaire survey. The respondents’ data were analysed in analysis of moment structures (AMOS) using structural equation modelling. The SEM analysis of the respondents’ data gives the most exemplary fitting measurement model with the 17 CSFs taken as components of five latent variables: external environment, financial characteristics, project planning and procurement, project operation and management and project stakeholders. The model shows the relationships between the constructs of CSFs for project success. This study contributes to current ideas by empirically identifying the interrelationships between the MSWM CSFs, which can help waste management professionals handle the CSFs rationally. Furthermore, the study shows that all the groups have a direct and positive impact on project success. The findings may only portray the opinion of solid waste management managers in India.

Elena Borasino ◽  
Hanna Fuhrmann-Riebel

AbstractOnly 4% of total municipal solid waste in Lima is recycled. Supermarkets and bodegas are in a unique, highly relevant position for the transition towards a circular economy due to their direct influence on customers’ consumption patterns. This paper explores the role of supermarkets and bodegas for consumer recycling behaviour, looking both at already implemented practices and possibilities for the future. Based on semi-structured interviews conducted with key actors in the recycling sector in 2019 and 2020, we analyse the sector regarding its main actors and their different interests, the interactions between them and the regulatory framework, as well as specific initiatives undertaken to increase recycling. We then compare the main mechanisms through which consumer recycling behaviour can be influenced between supermarkets and bodegas based on the three categories convenience, knowledge and socio-psychological factors. Our in-depth analysis outlines the different pros and cons for each of the three categories in detail.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (2) ◽  
pp. 362
Jamiluddin Ahmad Muzakki

Tofu industrial waste is generally divided into two forms of waste, namely solid waste and liquid waste. The liquid waste of the tofu industry contains organic material that can be decomposed anaerobically into methane gas (CH4), other gases, and water which is commonly called biogas. One of the potential biocatalysts as a source of microorganisms in biogas production is Effective Microorganisms 4 (EM-4). This research was conducted by adding EM-4 with a concentration of 0.5%; 1%; and without EM-4 into 15 liters of tofu liquid waste in the digester for fermentation for 7 days. Observation of the pressure on the manometer seen from the difference in the height of the liquid manometer U and the combustion process was carried out on the 7th day (constant pressure). The maximum pressure of biogas for 7 days at 1% EM4 of 927,864 kg/m.s2 produces a blue flame, has an unpleasant odor, does not cause smoke with a fire height of 12,602 mm. So it can be concluded that the greater concentration of EM-4 used, the greater the pressure of biogas and fire

2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (3) ◽  
pp. 1-17
Marina Jardim Faria de Araujo ◽  
Marcus Vinícius Faria de Araújo ◽  
Antonio Henriques De Araujo Jr ◽  
José Glenio Medeiros de Barros ◽  
Maria da Glória De Almeida ◽  

Purpose: This paper aims to introduce an economic instrument called Theory of Pollution Credit Certificates in the management of municipal solid waste in Brazil, in order to create opportunities to achieve the goal established in the above mentioned policy at lowest possible social costs.        Methodology/Approach: The methodology adopted has as a starting point the “constructo” of a scenario in which a city comprised of five brazilian districts produces its urban solid waste made up of 50% organic material. In the proposed scenario, similar to what happens in practice, a fee for collection and treatment of organic material would be charged for two different situations. Findings: The result showed that the use of Pollution Credit Certificates Theory has a better cost-effectiveness for solid waste management because it allows reaching the environmental goal at a lower cost to society. Research Limitation/Implication: Subjectivity of the analysis, due to the “constructo” proposition in the studies. Originality/Value of paper: From the results obtained, we inferred that the use of the Pollution Certificates Theory for the management of brazilian municipal solid waste benefits from economies of scale as it allows in the scenario determined, that districts sell their spaces at the landfill and parallel to this, to promote the practice of composting organic waste in the municipality.

Khaled Rawajfeh

This study aimed to use a chemical coagulant to treat Olive Mill Wastewater (OMW) in such a way as to improve and expedite the process of precipitating the solid waste material present in the wastewater. This process is of extreme importance in harvesting the solid material that can be used as domestic or industrial fuel material and as a supplement to animal feed. The chemical coagulant used in this study was calcium carbonate (CaCO3). The effect of the addition of this coagulant on some physical properties of olive mill wastewater (OMW) such as pH, electrical conductance (EC), the precipitated amount of the total suspended solids (TSS), and the higher heating value (HHV) of the precipitated solids was studied. It was found that small amounts of CaCO3 need to be added to affect the operation. The study results showed that the optimum value to be used was around three wt/wt %.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1-2) ◽  
pp. 66-71
Aleksandra Anić Vučinić ◽  
Valentina Tuk ◽  
Snježana Šimunić ◽  
Ivana Presečki

One of most common types of municipal solid waste treatment is mechanical-biological treatment (MBT), which in practice has many variations depending on the method of conducting the technological process and it is possible to get different output fractions. In this paper is analysed waste generated after the MBT with biodrying, where waste after mechanical treatment undergoes process of biodrying, and then is RDF (recovery derived fuel) separated. Fine fraction remains with a high content of organic matter that without additional processing cannot be disposed of on a landfill. The aim of this research was to determine the possibility of fine fraction composting in different conditions – in the open, in the open and covered area, and indoors. In each area are formed three compost piles: 100% fine fraction (KH1, KH4, and KH7), 70% fine fraction and 30% wood chips (KH2, KH5, and KH8), 50% fine fraction and 50% wood chips (KH3, KH6, and KH9). Moisture content, temperature and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were monitored. Results show that after 13 weeks samples KH1, KH4, and KH7 (100% content of fine fractions) did not achieve DOC value less than 3 000 mg/l. The most effective composting in terms of reducing the DOC is achieved in samples KH3, KH6, KH9. Based on results obtained, it can be concluded that by adding wood chips in fine fraction in ratio 50:50, the most effective and fastest reduction of organic matter is achieved in the analysed samples.

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