Recent discovery of fast blue optical transients (FBOTs)—a new class of energetic transient sources—can shed light on the long-standing problem of supernova—long gamma-ray burst connections. A distinctive feature of such objects is the presence of modestly relativistic outflows which place them in between the non-relativistic and relativistic supernovae-related events. Here we present the results of kinetic particle-in-cell and Monte Carlo simulations of particle acceleration and magnetic field amplification by shocks with the velocities in the interval between 0.1 and 0.7 c. These simulations are needed for the interpretation of the observed broad band radiation of FBOTs. Their fast, mildly to moderately relativistic outflows may efficiently accelerate relativistic particles. With particle-in-cell simulations we demonstrate that synchrotron radiation of accelerated relativistic electrons in the shock downstream may fit the observed radio fluxes. At longer timescales, well beyond those reachable within a particle-in-cell approach, our nonlinear Monte Carlo model predicts that protons and nuclei can be accelerated to petaelectronvolt (PeV) energies. Therefore, such fast and energetic transient sources can contribute to galactic populations of high energy cosmic rays.
Fragmentation of an elongated current sheet into many reconnection X-points, and therefore multiple plasmoids, occurs frequently in the solar corona. This speeds up the release of solar magnetic energy in the form of thermal and kinetic energy. Moreover, due to the presence of multiple reconnection X-points, the particle acceleration is more efficient in terms of the number of accelerated particles. This type of instability called “plasmoid instability” is accompanied with the excitation of some electrostatic/electromagnetic waves. We carried out 2D particle-in-cell simulations of this instability in the collisionless regime, with the presence of non-uniform magnetic guide field to investigate the nature of excited waves. It is shown that the nature and properties of waves excited inside and outside the current sheet are different. While the outside perturbations are transient, the inside ones are long-lived, and are directly affected by the plasmoid instability process.
Supernova remnants (SNRs) are thought to be the most promising sources of Galactic cosmic rays. One of the principal questions is whether they are accelerating particles up to the maximum energy of Galactic cosmic rays (∼PeV). In this work, a systematic study of gamma-ray-emitting SNRs is conducted as an advanced study of Suzuki et al. Our purpose is to newly measure the evolution of maximum particle energies with increased statistics and better age estimates. We model their gamma-ray spectra to constrain the particle-acceleration parameters. Two candidates of the maximum energy of freshly accelerated particles, the gamma-ray cutoff and break energies, are found to be well below PeV. We also test a spectral model that includes both the freshly accelerated and escaping particles to estimate the maximum energies more reliably, but no tighter constraints are obtained with current statistics. The average time dependences of the cutoff energy (∝t
−0.81±0.24) and break energy (∝t
−0.77±0.23) cannot be explained with the simplest acceleration condition (Bohm limit) and require shock–ISM (interstellar medium) interaction. The average maximum energy during lifetime is found to be ≲20 TeV
being the age at the maximum, which reaches PeV if t
≲ 10 yr. The maximum energies during lifetime are suggested to have a variety of 1.1–1.8 dex from object to object. Although we cannot isolate the cause of this variety, this work provides an important clue to understanding the microphysics of particle acceleration in SNRs.
Submicron particles transported by a Laval-type micronozzle are widely used in micro- and nano-electromechanical systems for the aerodynamic scheme of particle acceleration and focusing. In this paper, the Euler–Lagrangian method is utilized to numerically study non-spherical submicron particle diffusion in a converging–diverging micronozzle flow field. The influence of particle density and shape factor on the focusing process is discussed. The numerical simulation shows how submicron particle transporting with varying shape factors and particle density results in different particle velocities, trajectories and focusing in a micronozzle flow field. The particle with a larger shape factor or larger density exhibits a stronger aerodynamic focusing effect in a supersonic flow field through the nozzle. In the intersection process, as the particle size increases, the position of the particle trajectory intersection moves towards the throat at first and then it moves towards the nozzle outlet. Moreover, the influence of the thermophoretic force of the submicron particle on the aerodynamic focusing can be ignored. The results will be beneficial in technological applications, such as micro-thrusters, microfabrication and micro cold spray.
Sound perception and detection in decapod crustaceans is surprisingly poorly understood, even though there is mounting evidence for sound playing a critical role in many life history strategies. The suspected primary organ of sound perception are the paired statocysts at the base of the first antennal segment. To better understand the comparative sound detection of decapods, auditory evoked potentials were recorded from the statocyst nerve region of four species (Leptograpsus variegate, Plagusia chabrus, Ovalipes catharus, Austrohelice crassa) in response to two different auditory stimuli presentation methods, shaker table (particle acceleration) and underwater speaker (particle acceleration and pressure). The results showed that there was significant variation in the sound detection abilities between all four species. However, exposure to the speaker stimuli increased all four species sound detection abilities, both in terms of frequency bandwidth and sensitivity, compared to shaker table derived sound detection abilities. This indicates that there is another sensory mechanism in play as well as the statocyst system. Overall, the present research provides comparative evidence of sound detection in decapods and indicates underwater sound detection in this animal group was even more complex than previously thought.
Magnetic reconnection is widely accepted to be a major contributor to nonthermal particle acceleration in the solar atmosphere. In this paper we investigate particle acceleration during the impulsive phase of a coronal jet, which involves bursty reconnection at a magnetic null point. A test-particle approach is employed, using electromagnetic fields from a magnetohydrodynamic simulation of such a jet. Protons and electrons are found to be accelerated nonthermally both downwards toward the domain’s lower boundary and the solar photosphere, and outwards along the axis of the coronal jet and into the heliosphere. A key finding is that a circular ribbon of particle deposition on the photosphere is predicted, with the protons and electrons concentrated in different parts of the ribbon. Furthermore, the outgoing protons and electrons form two spatially separated beams parallel to the axis of the jet, signatures that may be observable in in-situ observations of the heliosphere.