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Published By American Academy Of Pediatrics

1098-4275, 0031-4005

PEDIATRICS ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Olivia Ostrow ◽  
Deena Savlov ◽  
Susan E. Richardson ◽  
Jeremy N. Friedman

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Viral respiratory infections are common in children, and practice guidelines do not recommend routine testing for typical viral illnesses. Despite results often not impacting care, nasopharyngeal swabs for viral testing are frequently performed and are an uncomfortable procedure. The aim of this initiative was to decrease unnecessary respiratory viral testing (RVT) in the emergency department (ED) and the pediatric medicine wards (PMWs) by 50% and 25%, respectively, over 36 months. METHODS: An expert panel reviewed published guidelines and appropriate evidence to formulate an RVT pathway using plan-do-study-act cycles. A multifaceted improvement strategy was developed that included implementing 2 newer, more effective tests when testing was deemed necessary; electronic order modifications with force functions; audit and feedback; and education. By using statistical process control charts, the outcomes analyzed were the percentage of RVT ordered in the ED and the rate of RVT ordered on the PMWs. Balancing measures included return visits leading to admission and inpatient viral nosocomial outbreaks. RESULTS: The RVT rate decreased from a mean of 3.0% to 0.5% of ED visits and from 44.3 to 30.1 per 1000 patient days on the PMWs and was sustained throughout the study. Even when accounting for the new rapid influenza test available in the ED, a 50% decrease in overall ED RVT was still achieved without any significant impact on return visits leading to admission or inpatient nosocomial infections. CONCLUSIONS: Through implementation of a standardized, electronically integrated RVT pathway, a decrease in unnecessary RVT was successfully achieved. Audit and feedback, reminders, and biannual education all supported long-term sustainability of this initiative.


PEDIATRICS ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sarah A. Sobotka ◽  
David E. Hall ◽  
Cary Thurm ◽  
James Gay ◽  
Jay G. Berry

BACKGROUND: Although many children with medical complexity (CMC) use home health care (HHC), little is known about all pediatric HHC utilizers. Our objective was to assess characteristics of pediatric HHC recipients, providers, and payments. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 5 209 525 children age 0-to-17 years enrolled Medicaid in the 2016 IBM Watson MarketScan Medicaid Database. HHC utilizers had ≥ 1 HHC claim. Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System (HCPCS) and Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes were reviewed to codify provider types when possible: registered nurse (RN), licensed practical nurse (LPN), home health aide (HHA), certified nursing assistant (CNA), or companion/personal attendant. Enrollee clinical characteristics, HHC provider type, and payments were assessed. Chronic conditions were evaluated with Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality’s Chronic Condition Indicators and Feudtner’s Complex Chronic Conditions. RESULTS: Of the 0.8% of children who used HHC, 43.8% were age <1 year, 25% had no chronic condition, 38.6% had a noncomplex chronic condition, 21.5% had a complex chronic condition without technology assistance, and 15.5% had technology assistance (eg, tracheostomy). HHC for children with technology assistance accounted for 72.6% of all HHC spending. Forty-five percent of HHC utilizers received RN/LPN-level care, 7.9% companion/personal attendant care, 5.9% HHA/CNA-level care, and 36% received care from an unspecified provider. For children with technology assistance, the majority (77.2%) received RN/LPN care, 17.5% companion/personal assistant care, and 13.8% HHA/CNA care. CONCLUSIONS: Children using HHC are a heterogeneous population who receive it from a variety of providers. Future investigations should explore the role of nonnurse caregivers, particularly with CMC.


PEDIATRICS ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Carolyn Foster ◽  
Dana Schinasi ◽  
Kristin Kan ◽  
Michelle Macy ◽  
Derek Wheeler ◽  
...  

Remote patient monitoring (RPM) is a form of telemedicine that involves the collection and transmission of health data from a patient to their health care team by using digital health technologies. RPM can be leveraged to aggregate and visualize longitudinal patient-generated health data for proactive clinical management and engagement of the patient and family in a child’s health care. Collection of remote data has been considered standard of care for years in some chronic pediatric conditions. However, software limitations, gaps in access to the Internet and technology devices, digital literacy, insufficient reimbursement, and other challenges have prevented expansion of RPM in pediatric medicine on a wide scale. Recent technological advances in remote devices and software, coupled with a shift toward virtual models of care, have created a need to better understand how RPM can be leveraged in pediatrics to improve the health of more children, especially for children with special health care needs who are reliant on high-quality chronic disease management. In this article, we define RPM for the general pediatric health care provider audience, provide case examples of existing RPM models, discuss advantages of and limitations to RPM (including how data are collected, evaluated, and managed), and provide a list of current RPM resources for clinical practitioners. Finally, we propose considerations for expansion of this health care delivery approach for children, including clinical infrastructure, equitable access to digital health care, and necessary reimbursement. The overarching goal is to advance health for children by adapting RPM technologies as appropriate and beneficial for patients, families, and providers alike.


Author(s):  
Dustin D. Flannery ◽  
Sagori Mukhopadhyay ◽  
Knashawn H. Morales ◽  
Miren B. Dhudasia ◽  
Molly Passarella ◽  
...  

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Multiple strategies are used to identify newborn infants at high risk of culture-confirmed early-onset sepsis (EOS). Delivery characteristics have been used to identify preterm infants at lowest risk of infection to guide initiation of empirical antibiotics. Our objectives were to identify term and preterm infants at lowest risk of EOS using delivery characteristics and to determine antibiotic use among them. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of term and preterm infants born January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2014, with blood culture with or without cerebrospinal fluid culture obtained ≤72 hours after birth. Criteria for determining low EOS risk included: cesarean delivery, without labor or membrane rupture before delivery, and no antepartum concern for intraamniotic infection or nonreassuring fetal status. We determined the association between these characteristics, incidence of EOS, and antibiotic duration among infants without EOS. RESULTS: Among 53 575 births, 7549 infants (14.1%) were evaluated and 41 (0.5%) of those evaluated had EOS. Low-risk delivery characteristics were present for 1121 (14.8%) evaluated infants, and none had EOS. Whereas antibiotics were initiated in a lower proportion of these infants (80.4% vs 91.0%, P < .001), duration of antibiotics administered to infants born with and without low-risk characteristics was not different (adjusted difference 0.6 hours, 95% CI [−3.8, 5.1]). CONCLUSIONS: Risk of EOS among infants with low-risk delivery characteristics is extremely low. Despite this, a substantial proportion of these infants are administered antibiotics. Delivery characteristics should inform empirical antibiotic management decisions among infants born at all gestational ages.


PEDIATRICS ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ivana Culic ◽  
Amy E. O’Connell

PEDIATRICS ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ndidi I. Unaka ◽  
Ariel Winn ◽  
Adiaha Spinks-Franklin ◽  
Patricia Poitevien ◽  
Franklin Trimm ◽  
...  

Racism and discrimination are the root of many pediatric health inequities and are well described in the literature. Despite the pervasiveness of pediatric health inequities, we have failed to adequately educate and prepare general pediatricians and pediatric subspecialists to address them. Deficiencies within education across the entire continuum and in our health care systems as a whole contribute to health inequities in unacceptable ways. To address these deficiencies, the field of pediatrics, along with other specialties, has been on a journey toward a more competency-based approach to education and assessment, and the framework created for the future is built on entrustable professional activities (EPAs). Competency-based medical education is one approach to addressing the deficiencies within graduate medical education and across the continuum by allowing educators to focus on the desired equitable patient outcomes and then develop an approach to teaching and assessing the tasks, knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed to achieve the goal of optimal, equitable patient care. To that end, we describe the development and content of a revised EPA entitled: Use of Population Health Strategies and Quality Improvement Methods to Promote Health and Address Racism, Discrimination, and Other Contributors to Inequities Among Pediatric Populations. We also highlight the ways in which this EPA can be used to inform curricula, assessments, professional development, organizational systems, and culture change.


PEDIATRICS ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Lauren Dutcher ◽  
Yun Li ◽  
Giyoung Lee ◽  
Robert Grundmeier ◽  
Keith W. Hamilton ◽  
...  

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: With the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, pediatric ambulatory encounter volume and antibiotic prescribing both decreased; however, the durability of these reductions in pediatric primary care in the United States has not been assessed. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational study to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and associated public health measures on antibiotic prescribing in 27 pediatric primary care practices. Encounters from January 1, 2018, through June 30, 2021, were included. The primary outcome was monthly antibiotic prescriptions per 1000 patients. Interrupted time series analysis was performed. RESULTS: There were 69 327 total antibiotic prescriptions from April through December in 2019 and 18 935 antibiotic prescriptions during the same months in 2020, a 72.7% reduction. The reduction in prescriptions at visits for respiratory tract infection (RTI) accounted for 87.3% of this decrease. Using interrupted time series analysis, overall antibiotic prescriptions decreased from 31.6 to 6.4 prescriptions per 1000 patients in April 2020 (difference of −25.2 prescriptions per 1000 patients; 95% CI: −32.9 to −17.5). This was followed by a nonsignificant monthly increase in antibiotic prescriptions, with prescribing beginning to rebound from April to June 2021. Encounter volume also immediately decreased, and while overall encounter volume quickly started to recover, RTI encounter volume returned more slowly. CONCLUSIONS: Reductions in antibiotic prescribing in pediatric primary care during the COVID-19 pandemic were sustained, only beginning to rise in 2021, primarily driven by reductions in RTI encounters. Reductions in viral RTI transmission likely played a substantial role in reduced RTI visits and antibiotic prescriptions.


PEDIATRICS ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Mersine A. Bryan ◽  
Annika M. Hofstetter ◽  
Douglas J. Opel ◽  
Tamara D. Simon

OBJECTIVES: To examine inpatient vaccine delivery across a national sample of children’s hospitals. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study examining vaccine administration at 49 children’s hospitals in the Pediatric Health Information System database. Children <18 years old admitted between July 1, 2017, and June 30, 2019, and age eligible for vaccinations were included. We determined the proportion of hospitalizations with ≥1 dose of any vaccine type administered overall and by hospital, the type of vaccines administered, and the demographic characteristics of children who received vaccines. We calculated adjusted hospital-level rates for each vaccine type by hospital. We used logistic and linear regression models to examine characteristics associated with vaccine administration. RESULTS: There were 1 185 667 children and 1 536 340 hospitalizations included. The mean age was 5.5 years; 18% were non-Hispanic Black, and 55% had public insurance. There were ≥1 vaccine doses administered in 12.9% (95% confidence interval: 12.8–12.9) of hospitalizations, ranging from 1% to 45% across hospitals. The most common vaccines administered were hepatitis B and influenza. Vaccine doses other than the hepatitis B birth dose and influenza were administered in 1.9% of hospitalizations. Children had higher odds of receiving a vaccine dose other than the hepatitis B birth dose or influenza if they were <2 months old, had public insurance, were non-Hispanic Black race, were medically complex, or had a length of stay ≥3 days. CONCLUSIONS: In this national study, few hospitalizations involved vaccine administration with substantial variability across US children's hospitals. Efforts to standardize inpatient vaccine administration may represent an opportunity to increase childhood vaccine coverage.


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