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2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 967
Author(s):  
Ekaterina A. Trifonova ◽  
Zakhar S. Mustafin ◽  
Sergey A. Lashin ◽  
Alex V. Kochetov

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by the early onset of communication and behavioral problems. ASD is highly heritable; however, environmental factors also play a considerable role in this disorder. A significant part of both syndromic and idiopathic autism cases could be attributed to disorders caused by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent translation deregulation. This narrative review analyzes both bioinformatic and experimental evidence that connects mTOR signaling to the maternal autoantibody-related (MAR) autism spectrum and autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders simultaneously. In addition, we reconstruct a network presenting the interactions between the mTOR signaling and eight MAR ASD genes coding for ASD-specific maternal autoantibody target proteins. The research discussed in this review demonstrates novel perspectives and validates the need for a subtyping of ASD on the grounds of pathogenic mechanisms. The utter necessity of designing ELISA-based test panels to identify all antibodies related to autism-like behavior is also considered.


2022 ◽  
pp. jrheum.210755
Author(s):  
Karoline Walscheid ◽  
Kai Rothaus ◽  
Martina Niewerth ◽  
Jens Klotsche ◽  
Kirsten Minden ◽  
...  

Objective Data on uveitis in juvenile psoriatic arthritis (JPsA), a category of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), are scarce. We describe prevalence and risk factors for JPsA-associated uveitis (JPsA-U). Methods Cross-sectional data from the National Pediatric Rheumatological Database (from 2002 to 2014) were used to characterize JPsA-U and assess risk factors for uveitis development. Results Uveitis developed in 6.6% of 1862 JPsA patients. JPsA-U patients were more frequently female (73.0 vs 62.9%, p=0.031), ANA positive (60.3 vs 37.0%, p<0.001), younger at JPsA onset (5.3 ± 4.1 vs 9.3 ± 4.4 years, p<0.001), and received DMARD (disease modifying antirheumatic drug) treatment significantly more frequently than JPsA patients without uveitis. On multivariable analysis of a subgroup of 655 patients, mean cJADAS during study documentation was significantly associated with uveitis development. Children with early onset of JPsA were significantly more frequently ANA positive (48.4% vs 35.7% for those younger than 5 years at JPsA onset versus those aged 5 years and older, p<0.001), less often affected by skin disease (55.3% vs 61.0%, p=0.032), but more frequently by uveitis (17.3% vs 3.8%, p<0.001), and required DMARD treatment more frequently (52.9% vs 43.8%, p<0.001). Conclusion The characteristics of JPsA patients developing uveitis are similar to those of patients with uveitis in other JIA categories, such as oligoarticular JIA. Especially those children with early onset of JPsA seem to be at a higher risk for ocular involvement. Our data support the notion of a major clinical difference between those patients with early versus late onset of JPsA.


BMC Medicine ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Jane P. Daniels ◽  
Emily Dixon ◽  
Alicia Gill ◽  
Jon Bishop ◽  
Mark Wilks ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Mother-to-baby transmission of group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the main cause of early-onset infection. We evaluated whether, in women with clinical risk factors for early neonatal infection, the use of point-of-care rapid intrapartum test to detect maternal GBS colonisation reduces maternal antibiotic exposure compared with usual care, where antibiotics are administered due to those risk factors. We assessed the accuracy of the rapid test in diagnosing maternal GBS colonisation, against the reference standard of selective enrichment culture. Methods We undertook a parallel-group cluster randomised trial, with nested test accuracy study and microbiological sub-study. UK maternity units were randomised to a strategy of rapid test (GeneXpert GBS system, Cepheid) or usual care. Within units assigned to rapid testing, vaginal-rectal swabs were taken from women with risk factors for vertical GBS transmission in established term labour. The trial primary outcome was the proportion of women receiving intrapartum antibiotics to prevent neonatal early-onset GBS infection. The accuracy of the rapid test was compared against the standard of selective enrichment culture in diagnosing maternal GBS colonisation. Antibiotic resistance profiles were determined in paired maternal and infant samples. Results Twenty-two maternity units were randomised and 20 were recruited. A total of 722 mothers (749 babies) participated in rapid test units; 906 mothers (951 babies) were in usual care units. There was no evidence of a difference in the rates of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (relative risk 1.16, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.64) between the rapid test (41%, 297/716) and usual care (36%, 328/906) units. No serious adverse events were reported. The sensitivity and specificity measures of the rapid test were 86% (95% CI 81 to 91%) and 89% (95% CI 85 to 92%), respectively. Babies born to mothers who carried antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli were more likely to be colonised with antibiotic-resistant strains than those born to mothers with antibiotic-susceptible E. coli. Conclusion The use of intrapartum rapid test to diagnose maternal GBS colonisation did not reduce the rates of antibiotics administered for preventing neonatal early-onset GBS infection than usual care, although with considerable uncertainty. The accuracy of the rapid test is within acceptable limits. Trial registration ISRCTN74746075. Prospectively registered on 16 April 2015


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Caroline Moraes Beltrami ◽  
Luisa Matos do Canto ◽  
Rolando André Rios Villacis ◽  
Annabeth Høgh Petersen ◽  
Mads Malik Aagaard ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Kathleen R. Callery ◽  
Sarah E. Schulwitz ◽  
Anjolene R. Hunt ◽  
Jason M. Winiarski ◽  
Christopher J. W. McClure ◽  
...  

Climate-driven advances in spring can result in phenological mismatch between brood rearing and prey availability and consequently cause decreased productivity in birds. How consequences of mismatch vary across species' ranges, and how individual behavior can mitigate mismatch effects is less studied. We quantified the relationship between phenological mismatch, productivity, and behavioral adaptations of American kestrels (Falco sparverius) across their breeding range in the United States and southern Canada. We obtained phenology and productivity data using nest observations from long term nest box monitoring, remote trail cameras, and community-scientist based programs. We collected data on parental incubation behavior and hatch asynchrony using trail cameras in nest boxes. Kestrels that laid eggs after the start of spring had higher rates of nest failure and fewer nestlings than earlier nesters, and effects of mismatch on productivity were most severe in the Northeast. In contrast, kestrels in the Southwest experienced a more gradual decline in productivity with seasonal mismatch. We attribute the effect of location to the growing season and temporal nesting windows (duration of nesting season). Specifically, resource availability in the Northeast is narrow and highly peaked during the breeding season, potentially resulting in shorter nesting windows. Conversely, resource curves may be more prolonged and dampened in the Southwest, and growing seasons are becoming longer with climate change, potentially resulting in longer nesting windows. We found that the onset of male incubation was negatively associated with lay date. Males from breeding pairs that laid eggs after the start of spring began incubation sooner than males from breeding pairs that laid before the start of spring. Early-onset male incubation was positively associated with hatching asynchrony, creating increased age variation in developing young. In sum, we demonstrate that American kestrels are vulnerable to phenological mismatch, and that this vulnerability varies across space. Northeastern populations could be more vulnerable to mismatch consequences, which may be one factor contributing to declines of kestrels in this region. Also, we demonstrate early onset of incubation as a potential adaptive behavior to advance average hatch date and spread out offspring demands, but it is unknown how impactful this will be in mitigating the fitness consequences of phenology mismatch.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Dmitry V Zaretsky ◽  
Maria V Zaretskaia ◽  
Yaroslav I Molkov

Amyloid plaques are the main signature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Beta-amyloid (Aβ) concentration in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF-Aβ) and the density of amyloid depositions have a strong negative correlation. However, AD patients have lower CSF-Aβ levels compared to cognitively normal people even after accounting for this correlation. The goal of this study was to infer variations of parameters in Aβ metabolism of AD patients that underlie this difference using data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative cohort. We found that AD patients had dramatically increased rates of cellular amyloid uptake compared to individuals with normal cognition (NC). A group with late-onset mild cognitive impairment (LMCI) also exhibited stronger amyloid uptake, however this was less pronounced than in the AD group. Estimated parameters in the early-onset MCI group did not differ significantly from those in the NC group. Aβ cytotoxicity depends on both the amount of peptide internalized by cells and its intracellular degradation into toxic products. Based on our results, we speculate that AD and LMCI are associated with increased cellular amyloid uptake which leads to faster disease progression, whereas the early-onset MCI may be mediated by the increased production of toxic amyloid metabolites.


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