The dysfunction of trophoblast during inflammation plays an important role in PE. Formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) plays crucial roles in the development of inflammation-associated disease. This present study aimed to explore the effect of FPR2 on a trophoblast cellular model of preeclampsia.
The expression of FPR2 in placenta was detected by immunohistochemical staining and western blotting. Transfection of siRNA was used to knockdown FPR2 in HTR-8/SVneo cells. Inflammatory cytokines were detected by ELISA. CCK8, Transwell, wound healing, FACS and tube formation assays were performed to observe the abilities of cell proliferation, migration, invasion, apoptosis and angiogenesis. Western blotting was implemented to clarify that NF-κB signaling pathway was downstream of FPR2.
The expression levels of FPR2 were higher in placental tissues of patients with PE. Knockdown of FPR2 expression by siFPR2 or inhibition of its activity by WRW4 decreased the release of proinflammatory cytokines in HTR8/SVneo cells treated with LPS. Knockdown of FPR2 expression or inhibition of its activity further reversed the LPS-induced attenuation of the proliferation, migration, invasion and angiogenesis and increase in apoptosis in HTR8/SVneo cells. Moreover, the NF-κB signaling pathway was activated in both placental tissues of patients with PE and LPS-treated HTR8/SVneo cells. However, the activation was attenuated when FPR2 was knocked down or inhibited.
Suppression of FPR2 expression alleviated the effects of inflammation induced by LPS on trophoblasts via the NF-κB signaling pathway, which provided a novel and potential strategy for the treatment of PE.
The aim of this study was to determine if pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), typically measured in maternal serum and a potential predictor of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes such as spontaneous miscarriage, pre-eclampsia, and stillbirth, is expressed in blastocoel fluid–conditioned media (BFCM) at the embryonic blastocyst stage.
This is an in vitro study.
BFCM samples from trophectoderm-tested euploid blastocysts (n = 80) from in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) patients were analyzed for PAPP-A mRNA. BFCM was obtained from blastocyst stage embryos in 20 uL drops. Blastocysts underwent trophectoderm biopsy for preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy prior to blastocyst vitrification and BFCM collection for snap freezing. cfDNA was synthesized using BFCM collected from 80 individual euploid blastocysts. Next, real-time qPCR was performed to detect expression of PAPP-A with GAPDH for normalization of expression in each sample.
PAPP-A mRNA was detected in 45 of 80 BFCM samples (56.3%), with varying levels of expression across samples.
Our study demonstrates the expression of PAPP-A in BFCM. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report detection of PAPP-A mRNA in BFCM. Further studies are required and underway to investigate a greater number of BFCM samples as well as the possible correlation of PAPP-A expression with pregnancy outcomes of transferred euploid blastocysts. If found to predict IVF and obstetric outcomes, PAPP-A may provide additional information along with embryonic euploidy for the selection of the optimal blastocyst for embryo transfer.