Inherited microorganisms can selfishly manipulate host reproduction to drive through populations. In Drosophila melanogaster, germline expression of the native prophage WO proteins CifA and CifB cause cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) in which sperms fertilize uninfected embryos that suffer catastrophic mitotic defects and lethality; however in infected females, CifA rescues the embryonic lethality and thus imparts a fitness advantage to Wolbachia. Despite widespread relevance to sex determination, evolution, and vector control, the mechanisms underlying when and how CI impairs male reproduction remain unknown and a topic of debate. Here we use cytochemical, microscopic, and transgenic assays in D. melanogaster to demonstrate that CifA and CifB proteins of wMel localize to nuclear DNA throughout the process of spermatogenesis. Cif proteins cause abnormal histone retention in elongating spermatids and protamine deficiency in mature sperms of CI-causing males. Protamine-deficient sperms travel to the female reproductive tract together with Cif proteins. In female ovaries, CifA localizes to germ cell nuclei and overlaps with Wolbachia in the nurse cell cytoplasm and the oocyte, however Cifs are not present in late-stage oocytes and the embryo. Moreover, CI and rescue are contingent upon a newly annotated CifA bipartite nuclear localization sequence. Our results reveal a previously unrecognized phenomena in which prophage proteins invade animal gametic nuclei and modify the histone-protamine transition of spermatogenesis.
AbstractEndometrial hyperplasia (EH) is the precursor lesion for endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the endometrium (EC), which represents the most common malignancy of the female reproductive tract in industrialized countries. The most important risk factor for the development of EH is chronic exposure to unopposed estrogen. Histopathologically, EH can be classified into EH without atypia (benign EH) and atypical EH/endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN). Clinical management ranges from surveillance or progestin therapy through to hysterectomy, depending on the risk of progression to or concomitant EC and the patient´s desire to preserve fertility. Multiple studies support the efficacy of progestins in treating both benign and atypical EH. This review summarizes the evidence base regarding risk factors and management of EH. Additionally, we performed a systematic literature search of the databases PubMed and Cochrane Controlled Trials register for studies analyzing the efficacy of progestin treatment in women with EH.
AbstractDiverse lines of evidence indicate that the mammalian oviduct makes important contributions to the complex process of reproduction other than being simply a conduit for the transport of gametes and embryos. The cumulative synthesis and transport of proteins secreted by oviductal secretory cells into the oviductal lumen create a microenvironment supporting important reproductive events, including sperm capacitation, fertilization, and early embryo development. Among the components that have been identified in the oviductal fluid is a family of glycosylated proteins known collectively as oviduct-specific glycoprotein (OVGP1) or oviductin. OVGP1 has been identified in several mammalian species, including humans. The present review summarizes the work carried out, in various mammalian species, by many research groups revealing the synthesis and secretion of OVGP1, its fate in the female reproductive tract upon secretion by the oviductal epithelium, and its role in modulating biological functions of gametes and embryos. The production and functions of recombinant human OVGP1 and recombinant OVGP1 of other mammalian species are also discussed. Some of the findings obtained with immunocytochemistry will be highlighted in the present review. It is hoped that the findings obtained from recent studies carried out with recombinant OVGP1 from various species will rekindle researchers’ interest in pursuing further the role of the oviductal microenvironment, of which OVGP1 is a major component, in contributing to the successful occurrence of early reproductive events, and the potential use of OVGP1 in improving the current assisted reproductive technology in alleviating infertility.
Previous evidence indicates associations between the female reproductive tract microbiome composition and reproductive outcome in infertile patients undergoing assisted reproduction. We aimed to determine whether the endometrial microbiota composition is associated with reproductive outcomes of live birth, biochemical pregnancy, clinical miscarriage or no pregnancy.
Here, we present a multicentre prospective observational study using 16S rRNA gene sequencing to analyse endometrial fluid and biopsy samples before embryo transfer in a cohort of 342 infertile patients asymptomatic for infection undergoing assisted reproductive treatments.
A dysbiotic endometrial microbiota profile composed of Atopobium, Bifidobacterium, Chryseobacterium, Gardnerella, Haemophilus, Klebsiella, Neisseria, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus was associated with unsuccessful outcomes. In contrast, Lactobacillus was consistently enriched in patients with live birth outcomes.
Our findings indicate that endometrial microbiota composition before embryo transfer is a useful biomarker to predict reproductive outcome, offering an opportunity to further improve diagnosis and treatment strategies.
Vaginal drug administration can improve prophylaxis and treatment of many conditions affecting the female reproductive tract, which includes fungal and bacterial infections, sexually transmitted diseases and cancer also. This is the best route for the administration of proteins, peptides, and also other therapeutic drugs like macro-molecules. For the administration of drugs like contraceptives, steroids, metronidazole, anti-retroviral, vaginal drug delivery is the most preferable route. However, achieving sufficient drug concentration in the vagina can be challenging because of its low permeability. The benefits of the vaginal drug delivery system are it increases the bioavailability, least systemic side effects; easiness of use and self-medication is possible. However vaginal drug delivery system is considered as a less effective route because of the unfortunate absorption of drugs across the vaginal epithelium. The traditional commercial preparations, such as creams, foams, gels, irrigations and tablets, are known to reside in the vaginal cavity for a relatively short period of time owing to the self-cleaning action of the vaginal tract and often require multiple daily doses to ensure the desired therapeutic effect. With the rapidly developing field of nanotechnology, the use of specifically designed carrier systems such as Nanoparticle-based drug delivery has been proven an excellent choice for vaginal application to overcome the challenges associated with the low permeability.