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Vaccines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 125
Federica Scrimin ◽  
Giuseppina Campisciano ◽  
Manola Comar ◽  
Chiara Ragazzon ◽  
Riccardo Davanzo ◽  

The COVID-19 pandemic has carried massive global health and economic burden that is currently counteracted by a challenging anti-COVID-19 vaccination campaign. Indeed, mass vaccination against COVID-19 is expected to be the most efficacious intervention to mitigate the pandemic successfully. The primary objective of the present study is to test the presence of neutralizing anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (IgA and IgG) in the breast milk and sera samples from vaccinated women at least 20 days after the complete vaccine cycle. A secondary aim is to compare the IgG antibodies level in maternal serum and breast milk. The third target is to evaluate the presence of the IgG antibodies in breast milk after several weeks from the vaccination. Finally, we collected information on the health status of infants in the days following maternal vaccination. Forty-two mothers were enrolled in the study. Thirty-six received the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine, four the Astra Zeneca vaccine, one the Moderna vaccine and another woman Astra Zeneca in the first dose and Pfizer/BioNTech in the second dose. All 42 milk samples confirmed the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG, and none showed IgA presence. Regarding the matched 42 sera samples, 41 samples detected IgG presence, with one sample testing negative and only one positive for seric IgA. None of the 42 infants had fever or changes in sleep or appetite in the seven days following the maternal vaccination. The level of IgG antibodies in milk was, on average, lower than that in maternal serum. According to our analysis, the absence of IgA could suggest a rapid decrease after vaccination even if frequent breastfeeding could favour its persistence. IgG were present in breast milk even 4 months after the second vaccine dose. Information on the immunological characteristics of breast milk could change mothers’ choices regarding breastfeeding.

Shahryar K. Kavoussi ◽  
Shu-Hung Chen ◽  
John David Wininger ◽  
Arnav Lal ◽  
William E. Roudebush ◽  

Abstract Purpose The aim of this study was to determine if pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), typically measured in maternal serum and a potential predictor of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes such as spontaneous miscarriage, pre-eclampsia, and stillbirth, is expressed in blastocoel fluid–conditioned media (BFCM) at the embryonic blastocyst stage. Design This is an in vitro study. Methods BFCM samples from trophectoderm-tested euploid blastocysts (n = 80) from in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) patients were analyzed for PAPP-A mRNA. BFCM was obtained from blastocyst stage embryos in 20 uL drops. Blastocysts underwent trophectoderm biopsy for preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy prior to blastocyst vitrification and BFCM collection for snap freezing. cfDNA was synthesized using BFCM collected from 80 individual euploid blastocysts. Next, real-time qPCR was performed to detect expression of PAPP-A with GAPDH for normalization of expression in each sample. Results PAPP-A mRNA was detected in 45 of 80 BFCM samples (56.3%), with varying levels of expression across samples. Conclusion Our study demonstrates the expression of PAPP-A in BFCM. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report detection of PAPP-A mRNA in BFCM. Further studies are required and underway to investigate a greater number of BFCM samples as well as the possible correlation of PAPP-A expression with pregnancy outcomes of transferred euploid blastocysts. If found to predict IVF and obstetric outcomes, PAPP-A may provide additional information along with embryonic euploidy for the selection of the optimal blastocyst for embryo transfer.

Kumar Vivek ◽  
Balachandar Thangappazham ◽  
Alekya Vykunta ◽  
Paresh P. Kulkarni ◽  
Faustino R. Pérez-López ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 695
Angelos Dimas ◽  
Anastasia Politi ◽  
George Papaioannou ◽  
Thomas M. Barber ◽  
Martin O. Weickert ◽  

Increased maternal food intake is considered a normal pregnancy adjustment. However, the overavailability of nutrients may lead to dysregulated fetal development and increased adiposity, with long-lasting effects on offspring in later life. Several gut-hormone molecules regulate maternal appetite, with both their orexigenic and anorectic effects being in a state of sensitive equilibrium. The aim of this manuscript is to systematically review literature on the effects of maternal gut-hormone molecules on fetal growth and metabolism, birth weight and the later metabolic health of offspring. Maternal serum ghrelin, leptin, IGF-1 and GLP-1 appear to influence fetal growth; however, a lack of consistent and strong correlations of maternal appetite axis hormones with birth weight and the concomitant correlation with fetal and birth waist circumference may suggest that these molecules primarily mediate fetal energy deposition mechanisms, preparing the fetus for survival after birth. Dysregulated intrauterine environments seem to have detrimental, sex-dependent effects on fetal energy stores, affecting not only fetal growth, fat mass deposition and birth weight, but also future metabolic and endocrine wellbeing of offspring.

Akifumi Eguchi ◽  
Kenichi Sakurai ◽  
Midori Yamamoto ◽  
Masahiro Watanabe ◽  
Aya Hisada ◽  

Maternal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during pregnancy is associated with a low birth weight; however, the congener-specific effects of PCB congeners are not well defined. In this study, we used maternal serum samples from the Chiba Study of Mother and Child Health (C-MACH) cohort, collected at 32 weeks of gestational age, to analyze the effects of PCB congener exposure on birth weight by examining the relationship between newborn birth weight and individual PCB congener levels in maternal serum (n = 291). The median total PCB level in the serum of mothers of male and female newborns at approximately 32 weeks of gestation was 39 and 37 ng g−1 lipid wt, respectively. The effect of the total PCB levels and the effects of PCB congener mixtures were analyzed using a linear regression model and a generalized weighted quantile sum regression model (gWQS). The birth weight of newborns was significantly associated with maternal exposure to PCB mixtures in the gWQS model. The results suggest that exposure to PCB mixtures results in low newborn birth weight. However, specific impacts of individual PCB congeners could not be related to newborn birth weight.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-5
Wenying Huang ◽  
Shuxuan Zhang

Preeclampsia (PE) is a common and proprietary complication during pregnancy. The correlation was found between the levels of HtrA3 and TGF-β 2 and preeclampsia (PE). This study aimed to detect the HtrA3 and TGF-β2 in different parts of the third trimester (maternal serum, placenta). The 102 pregnant women who were eligible for enrollment in the obstetric examination at Tengzhou Maternity and Child Health Hospital from June 2020 to December 2020 were selected as the research objects. 28 cases diagnosed with PE were set up as the observation group 1, and 24 cases diagnosed with severe PE were set up as the observation group 2. Select 50 normal pregnant women as the control group and research the expressions of HtrA3 and TGF-β2 in maternal blood and placental tissues of patients with PE. ELISA was used to measure the concentration of HtrA3 and TGF-β2 in maternal blood. The distribution of HtrA3 and TGF-β2 in the placenta was observed by immunohistochemical techniques (IHC) and mean optical density value (MOD). S/D was measured by using color Doppler ultrasonic. The concentration of HtrA3 and TGF-β2 in the maternal blood and placenta tissue was higher in severe PE compared with PE and normotensive pregnancy, respectively ( P < 0.05 ). There is a negative correlation between the level of HtrA3 and TGF-β2 and the birthweight of newborns both in maternal plasma and placenta tissue in preeclampsia and positive correlation between HtrA3 and TGF-β2 levels and S/D. HtrA3 and TGF-β2 may correlate with severity of PE and their neonatal adverse outcomes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
David B. Seifer ◽  
Geralyn Lambert-Messerlian ◽  
Glenn E. Palomaki ◽  
Robert M. Silver ◽  
Corette Parker ◽  

Abstract Background Preeclampsia is characterized by decreased trophoblastic angiogenesis leading to abnormal invasion of spiral arteries, shallow implantation and resulting in compromised placentation with poor uteroplacental perfusion. Vitamin D plays an important role in pregnancy influencing implantation, angiogenesis and placental development. The objective of this study was to determine whether there is an association between serum vitamin D levels, and anti-angiogenic factors at the time of delivery and the occurrence of preeclampsia. Methods This nested case control study analyzed frozen serum samples at the time of delivery and related clinical data from women with singleton liveborn pregnancies who had participated in studies of the NICHD Stillbirth Collaborative Research Network. Women with a recorded finding of preeclampsia and who had received magnesium sulfate treatment prior to delivery were considered index cases (N = 56). Women without a finding of preeclampsia were controls (N = 341). Results Women with preeclampsia had 14.5% lower serum vitamin D levels than women in the control group (16.5 ng/ml vs. 19 ng/ml, p = 0.014) with 64.5% higher sFlt-1 levels (11,600 pg/ml vs. 7050 pg/ml, p < 0.001) and greater than 2 times higher endoglin levels (18.6 ng/ml vs. 8.7 ng/ml, < 0.001). After controlling for gestational age at delivery and maternal BMI, vitamin D levels were 0.88 times lower (P = 0.051), while endoglin levels were 2.5 times higher and sFlt-1 levels were 2.1 times higher than in control pregnancies (P < 0.001). Conclusions Women with preeclampsia at time of delivery have higher maternal antiangiogenetic factors and may have lower maternal serum vitamin D levels. These findings may lead to a better understanding of the underlying etiology of preeclampsia as well as possible modifiable treatment options which could include assuring adequate levels of maternal serum vitamin D prior to pregnancy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 226 (1) ◽  
pp. S158
Tianhua Huang ◽  
Shamim Rashid ◽  
Ellen Mak-Tam ◽  
Megan Priston ◽  
Clare Gibbons ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 158 ◽  
pp. 106987
Elvira V. Bräuner ◽  
Cecilie S. Uldbjerg ◽  
Youn-Hee Lim ◽  
Laura S. Gregersen ◽  
Marianna Krause ◽  

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