Inherited microorganisms can selfishly manipulate host reproduction to drive through populations. In Drosophila melanogaster, germline expression of the native prophage WO proteins CifA and CifB cause cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) in which sperms fertilize uninfected embryos that suffer catastrophic mitotic defects and lethality; however in infected females, CifA rescues the embryonic lethality and thus imparts a fitness advantage to Wolbachia. Despite widespread relevance to sex determination, evolution, and vector control, the mechanisms underlying when and how CI impairs male reproduction remain unknown and a topic of debate. Here we use cytochemical, microscopic, and transgenic assays in D. melanogaster to demonstrate that CifA and CifB proteins of wMel localize to nuclear DNA throughout the process of spermatogenesis. Cif proteins cause abnormal histone retention in elongating spermatids and protamine deficiency in mature sperms of CI-causing males. Protamine-deficient sperms travel to the female reproductive tract together with Cif proteins. In female ovaries, CifA localizes to germ cell nuclei and overlaps with Wolbachia in the nurse cell cytoplasm and the oocyte, however Cifs are not present in late-stage oocytes and the embryo. Moreover, CI and rescue are contingent upon a newly annotated CifA bipartite nuclear localization sequence. Our results reveal a previously unrecognized phenomena in which prophage proteins invade animal gametic nuclei and modify the histone-protamine transition of spermatogenesis.
Streptococcus agalactiae or Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is an encapsulated gram-positive bacterial pathobiont that commonly colonizes the lower gastrointestinal tract and reproductive tract of human hosts. This bacterium can infect the gravid reproductive tract and cause invasive infections of pregnant patients and neonates. Upon colonizing the reproductive tract, the bacterial cell is presented with numerous nutritional challenges imposed by the host. One strategy employed by the host innate immune system is intoxication of bacterial invaders with certain transition metals such as zinc.
Previous work has demonstrated that GBS must employ elegant strategies to circumnavigate zinc stress in order to survive in the vertebrate host. We assessed 30 strains of GBS from diverse isolation sources, capsular serotypes, and sequence types for susceptibility or resistance to zinc intoxication.
Invasive strains, such as those isolated from early onset disease manifestations of GBS infection were significantly less susceptible to zinc toxicity than colonizing strains isolated from rectovaginal swabs of pregnant patients. Additionally, capsular type III (cpsIII) strains and the ST-17 and ST-19 strains exhibited the greatest resilience to zinc stress, whereas ST-1 and ST-12 strains as well as those possessing capsular type Ib (cpsIb) were more sensitive to zinc intoxication. Thus, this study demonstrates that the transition metal zinc possesses antimicrobial properties against a wide range of GBS strains, with isolation source, capsular serotype, and sequence type contributing to susceptibility or resistance to zinc stress.
Some microbial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have adverse effects on the reproductive tract, sperm function, and male fertility. Given that STIs are often asymptomatic and cause major complications such as urogenital inflammation, fibrosis, and scarring, optimal treatments should be performed to prevent the noxious effect of STIs on male fertility. Among STIs, Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common asymptomatic preventable bacterial STI. C. trachomatis can affect both sperm and the male reproductive tract. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived exosomes have been considered as a new therapeutic medicine due to their immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and regenerative effects without consequences through the stem cell transplantation based therapies. Inflammation of the genital tract and sperm dysfunction are the consequences of the microbial infections, especially Chlamydia trachomatis. Exosome therapy as a noninvasive approach has shown promising results on the ability to regenerate the damaged sperm and treating asthenozoospermia. Recent experimental methods may be helpful in the novel treatments of male infertility. Thus, it is demonstrated that exosomes play an important role in preventing the consequences of infection, and thereby preventing inflammation, reducing cell damage, inhibiting fibrogenesis, and reducing scar formation. This review aimed to overview the studies about the potential therapeutic roles of MSCs-derived exosomes on sperm abnormalities and male infertility caused by STIs.
AbstractEndometrial hyperplasia (EH) is the precursor lesion for endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the endometrium (EC), which represents the most common malignancy of the female reproductive tract in industrialized countries. The most important risk factor for the development of EH is chronic exposure to unopposed estrogen. Histopathologically, EH can be classified into EH without atypia (benign EH) and atypical EH/endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN). Clinical management ranges from surveillance or progestin therapy through to hysterectomy, depending on the risk of progression to or concomitant EC and the patient´s desire to preserve fertility. Multiple studies support the efficacy of progestins in treating both benign and atypical EH. This review summarizes the evidence base regarding risk factors and management of EH. Additionally, we performed a systematic literature search of the databases PubMed and Cochrane Controlled Trials register for studies analyzing the efficacy of progestin treatment in women with EH.
Background: Rabbits are small mammals from the family Leporidae. Rapid multiplication profile of the rabbits often necessitates contraceptive controls in which ovario-hysterectomy is the only recommended method worldwide but still rabbit owners avoid surgical manipulation and opt for the contraceptive injections but contraceptive injections are also known to cause undesired effects in different animal species. The present study was conducted to evaluate effects of Medroxyprogesterone acetate on liver enzymes, lipid profile, blood glucose and uterine endometrial morphology. Methods: The study was conducted on 20 breeding female rabbits at Pet Centre, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. The study animals were divided into two groups, A and B having 10 rabbits each. Group A was treated with single dose of Medroxyprogesterone acetate (10 mg/kg IM). While group B was kept as control and was given a single dose of 0.9% normal saline placebo injection. Pre and post treatment serum sampling was performed on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42 and histopathological evaluation of reproductive tract (mainly uterus) was conducted at the end of study. Result: Serological parameters i.e. liver profile, lipid profile and blood glucose level (random) were significantly increased after treatment along with congestion, engorgement of blood vessels, degeneration, hyperplasia of uterine epithelium and uterine glands in Treatment group in contrast to control group. On the basis of this study it was concluded that Medroxyprogesterone acetate poses undesirable effect on the uterine endometrium and different serological parameters of body like liver enzymes (total bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase), blood glucose, lipid profile (cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, triglyceride).
AbstractDiverse lines of evidence indicate that the mammalian oviduct makes important contributions to the complex process of reproduction other than being simply a conduit for the transport of gametes and embryos. The cumulative synthesis and transport of proteins secreted by oviductal secretory cells into the oviductal lumen create a microenvironment supporting important reproductive events, including sperm capacitation, fertilization, and early embryo development. Among the components that have been identified in the oviductal fluid is a family of glycosylated proteins known collectively as oviduct-specific glycoprotein (OVGP1) or oviductin. OVGP1 has been identified in several mammalian species, including humans. The present review summarizes the work carried out, in various mammalian species, by many research groups revealing the synthesis and secretion of OVGP1, its fate in the female reproductive tract upon secretion by the oviductal epithelium, and its role in modulating biological functions of gametes and embryos. The production and functions of recombinant human OVGP1 and recombinant OVGP1 of other mammalian species are also discussed. Some of the findings obtained with immunocytochemistry will be highlighted in the present review. It is hoped that the findings obtained from recent studies carried out with recombinant OVGP1 from various species will rekindle researchers’ interest in pursuing further the role of the oviductal microenvironment, of which OVGP1 is a major component, in contributing to the successful occurrence of early reproductive events, and the potential use of OVGP1 in improving the current assisted reproductive technology in alleviating infertility.
Previous evidence indicates associations between the female reproductive tract microbiome composition and reproductive outcome in infertile patients undergoing assisted reproduction. We aimed to determine whether the endometrial microbiota composition is associated with reproductive outcomes of live birth, biochemical pregnancy, clinical miscarriage or no pregnancy.
Here, we present a multicentre prospective observational study using 16S rRNA gene sequencing to analyse endometrial fluid and biopsy samples before embryo transfer in a cohort of 342 infertile patients asymptomatic for infection undergoing assisted reproductive treatments.
A dysbiotic endometrial microbiota profile composed of Atopobium, Bifidobacterium, Chryseobacterium, Gardnerella, Haemophilus, Klebsiella, Neisseria, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus was associated with unsuccessful outcomes. In contrast, Lactobacillus was consistently enriched in patients with live birth outcomes.
Our findings indicate that endometrial microbiota composition before embryo transfer is a useful biomarker to predict reproductive outcome, offering an opportunity to further improve diagnosis and treatment strategies.