Bernard-Soulier syndrome (BSS) is a rare inherited disorder characterized by unusually large platelets, low platelet count, and prolonged bleeding time. BSS is usually inherited in an autosomal recessive (AR) mode of inheritance due to a deficiency of the GPIb-IX-V complex also known as the von Willebrand factor (VWF) receptor. We investigated a family with macrothrombocytopenia, a mild bleeding tendency, slightly lowered platelet aggregation tests, and suspected autosomal dominant (AD) inheritance. We have detected a heterozygous GP1BA likely pathogenic variant, causing monoallelic BSS. A germline GP1BA gene variant (NM_000173:c.98G > A:p.C33Y), segregating with the macrothrombocytopenia, was detected by whole-exome sequencing. In silico analysis of the protein structure of the novel GPIbα variant revealed a potential structural defect, which could impact proper protein folding and subsequent binding to VWF. Flow cytometry, immunoblot, and electron microscopy demonstrated further differences between p.C33Y GP1BA carriers and healthy controls. Here, we provide a detailed insight into its clinical presentation and phenotype. Moreover, the here described case first presents an mBSS patient with two previous ischemic strokes.
Plant dicarboxylate carriers (DICs) transport a wide range of dicarboxylates across the mitochondrial inner membrane. The Arabidopsis thalianaDIC family is composed of three genes (AtDIC1, 2 and 3), whereas two genes (EgDIC1 and EgDIC2) have been retrieved in Eucalyptus grandis. Here, by combining in silico and in planta analyses, we provide evidence that DICs are partially redundant, important in plant adaptation to environmental stresses and part of a low-oxygen response in both species. AtDIC1 and AtDIC2 are present in most plant species and have very similar gene structure, developmental expression patterns and absolute expression across natural Arabidopsis accessions. In contrast, AtDIC3 seems to be an early genome acquisition found in Brassicaceae and shows relatively low (or no) expression across these accessions. In silico analysis revealed that both AtDICs and EgDICs are highly responsive to stresses, especially to cold and submergence, while their promoters are enriched for stress-responsive transcription factors binding sites. The expression of AtDIC1 and AtDIC2 is highly correlated across natural accessions and in response to stresses, while no correlation was found for AtDIC3. Gene ontology enrichment analysis suggests a role for AtDIC1 and AtDIC2 in response to hypoxia, and for AtDIC3 in phosphate starvation. Accordingly, the investigated genes are induced by submergence stress in A. thaliana and E. grandis while AtDIC2 overexpression improved seedling survival to submergence. Interestingly, the induction of AtDIC1 and AtDIC2 is abrogated in the erfVII mutant that is devoid of plant oxygen sensing, suggesting that these genes are part of a conserved hypoxia response in Arabidopsis.
The insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is a zinc-dependent metalloendopeptidase that belongs to the M16A metalloprotease family. IDE is markedly expressed in the brain, where it is particularly relevant due to its in vitro amyloid beta (Aβ)-degrading activity. The subcellular localization of IDE, a paramount aspect to understand how this enzyme can perform its proteolytic functions in vivo, remains highly controversial. In this work, we addressed IDE subcellular localization from an evolutionary perspective. Phylogenetic analyses based on protein sequence and gene and protein structure were performed. An in silico analysis of IDE signal peptide suggests an evolutionary shift in IDE exportation at the prokaryote/eukaryote divide. Subcellular localization experiments in microglia revealed that IDE is mostly cytosolic. Furthermore, IDE associates to membranes by their cytoplasmatic side and further partitions between raft and non-raft domains. When stimulated, microglia change into a secretory active state, produces numerous multivesicular bodies and IDE associates with their membranes. The subsequent inward budding of such membranes internalizes IDE in intraluminal vesicles, which later allows IDE to be exported outside the cells in small extracellular vesicles. We further demonstrate that such an IDE exportation mechanism is regulated by stimuli relevant for microglia in physiological conditions and upon aging and neurodegeneration.
AbstractInfluenza virus is a persistent threat to human health; indeed, the deadliest modern pandemic was in 1918 when an H1N1 virus killed an estimated 50 million people globally. The intent of this work is to better understand influenza from an RNA-centric perspective to provide local, structural motifs with likely significance to the influenza infectious cycle for therapeutic targeting. To accomplish this, we analyzed over four hundred thousand RNA sequences spanning three major clades: influenza A, B and C. We scanned influenza segments for local secondary structure, identified/modeled motifs of likely functionality, and coupled the results to an analysis of evolutionary conservation. We discovered 185 significant regions of predicted ordered stability, yet evidence of sequence covariation was limited to 7 motifs, where 3—found in influenza C—had higher than expected amounts of sequence covariation.
Venom from different organisms was used in ancient times to treat a wide range of diseases, and to combat a variety of enveloped and non-enveloped viruses. The aim of this in silico research was to investigate the impact of honeybee venom proteins and peptides against Ebola virus. In the current in silico study, different online and offline tools were used. RaptorX (protein 3D modeling) and PatchDock (protein–protein docking) were used as online tools, while Chimera and LigPlot + v2.1 were used for visualizing protein–protein interactions. We screened nine venom proteins and peptides against the normal Ebola virus spike protein and found that melittin, MCD and phospholipase A2 showed a strong interaction. We then screened these peptides and proteins against mutated strains of Ebola virus and found that the enzyme phospholipase A2 showed a strong interaction. According to the findings, phospholipase A2 found in honeybee venom may be an effective source of antiviral therapy against the deadly Ebola virus. Although the antiviral potency of phospholipase A2 has been recorded previously, this is the first in silico analysis of honeybee phospholipase A2 against the Ebola viral spike protein and its more lethal mutant strain.