Objectives: To compare the effects of signaling-selective parathyroid hormone analogs [G1, R19]hPTH(1–28) [GR(1–28)] and [G1, R19]hPTH(1–34) [GR(1–34)] on osteoporotic osteocyte apoptosis, and to explore the mechanism of the anti-osteoporotic difference.
Methods: The osteoporosis model was established in eighty adult female C57BL/6 mice aged 12 weeks. The mice were subcutaneously administered with GR(1–28) and GR(1–34) 5 days per week for 8 weeks. Bilateral femur samples were collected at 4 and 8 weeks, and micro-computed
tomography (CT), H&E staining and immunohistochemical staining analyses were performed. Results: From micro-CT analysis, GR(1–34) increased proximal femoral bone mineral density (BMD) and relative bone volume (BV/TV), which was higher than GR(1–28) did. In addition,
more trabecular number (Tb.N), thinner trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) and wider trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) were measured at week 8 using GR(1–34). From H&E and immunohistochemical staining, a stronger apoptosis inhibition was induced by GR(1–34) with more Bcl-2 secretion
but less Bax expression, as opposed to GR(1–28). Conclusions: GR(1–34) shows better anti-osteoporotic effects than GR(1–28), which appears to be attributed to the activation of the PLC-independent PKC signaling pathway triggered by the former, inhibiting osteocyte
apoptosis through up-regulation of Bcl-2 and down-regulation of Bax to increase bone mass and improving trabecular bone microstructure to enhance bone quality by reducing trabecular number, increasing trabecular thickness and trabecular space.
This study was aimed to compare the histological pattern of bone modeling on either periodontal or periosteal side induced by lateral orthodontic tooth movement in different age groups.
Material and Methods:
A total of 50 male Sprague-Dawley rats (25 rats in the adult group – 52 weeks and 25 rats in the young group – 10 weeks) were utilized in this study. Each age group was classified into the control, 3 days, 7 days, 14 days, and 21 days groups (five rats in each) by the duration of experimental device application. A double-helical spring was produced using 0.014” stainless steel wire to provide 40 g lateral force to the left and right incisors. Hematoxylin-eosin staining, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemical staining, fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) immunohistochemical staining, and Masson trichrome staining were performed; and the slides were subject to histological examination.
In 7 days, active bone modeling represented by the scalloped surface was observed on the periosteal side of the crestal and middle alveolus at the pressure side in the young group, while similar changes were observed only on the crestal area in the adult group. In the young group, the number of PCNA-positive cells increased significantly on the crestal area and middle alveolus on the 3, 7, and 14 day groups, with subsequent decrease at 21 days. In the adult group, PCNA-positive cells were localized on the crestal area throughout the period. In the young group, FGFR2-positive cells were observed mainly on the crestal and middle alveolus at 3, 7, and 14 days than the control group. In the adult group, these cells appeared on the crestal and middle alveolus in the 3 days group, but mainly on the crestal area at 14 days. In the young group, FGFR2-positive cells were observed on the crestal and middle alveolus on the 3, 7, and 14 days groups more than on the control group. In the adult group, these cells appeared on the crestal and middle alveolus in the 3 days group, but mainly on the crestal area in the 14 days group. In Masson trichrome stain, an increased number of type I collagen fibers were observed after helical spring activation in both age groups. Large resorption lacunae indicating undermining bone resorption were progressively present in both young and adult groups.
According to these results, orthodontic tooth movement may stimulate cell proliferation and differentiation primarily on the periosteal side according to progressive undermining bone resorption on the periodontal side. This response may lead to prominent bone modeling during tooth movement in the young group, compared to the relatively delayed response in the adult group.
The dysfunction of trophoblast during inflammation plays an important role in PE. Formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) plays crucial roles in the development of inflammation-associated disease. This present study aimed to explore the effect of FPR2 on a trophoblast cellular model of preeclampsia.
The expression of FPR2 in placenta was detected by immunohistochemical staining and western blotting. Transfection of siRNA was used to knockdown FPR2 in HTR-8/SVneo cells. Inflammatory cytokines were detected by ELISA. CCK8, Transwell, wound healing, FACS and tube formation assays were performed to observe the abilities of cell proliferation, migration, invasion, apoptosis and angiogenesis. Western blotting was implemented to clarify that NF-κB signaling pathway was downstream of FPR2.
The expression levels of FPR2 were higher in placental tissues of patients with PE. Knockdown of FPR2 expression by siFPR2 or inhibition of its activity by WRW4 decreased the release of proinflammatory cytokines in HTR8/SVneo cells treated with LPS. Knockdown of FPR2 expression or inhibition of its activity further reversed the LPS-induced attenuation of the proliferation, migration, invasion and angiogenesis and increase in apoptosis in HTR8/SVneo cells. Moreover, the NF-κB signaling pathway was activated in both placental tissues of patients with PE and LPS-treated HTR8/SVneo cells. However, the activation was attenuated when FPR2 was knocked down or inhibited.
Suppression of FPR2 expression alleviated the effects of inflammation induced by LPS on trophoblasts via the NF-κB signaling pathway, which provided a novel and potential strategy for the treatment of PE.
Nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen (nHAC) is a new type of bone tissue engineering scaffold material. To speed up the new bone formation of nHAC, this study used concentrated growth factor (CGF) and nHAC in combination to repair rabbit mandibular defects. nHAC/CGF and nHAC were implanted into rabbit mandibles, and X-ray, Micro-CT, HE and Masson staining, immunohistochemical staining and biomechanical testing were performed at 8, 16 and 24 weeks after surgery. The results showed that as the material degraded, the rate of new bone formation in the nHAC/CGF group was better than that in the nHAC group. The results of the HE and Masson staining showed that the bone continuity or maturity of the nHAC/CGF group was better than that of the nHAC group. Immunohistochemical staining showed that OCN expression gradually increased with time. The nHAC/CGF group showed significantly higher BMP2 than the nHAC group at 8 weeks and the difference gradually decreased with time. The biomechanical test showed that the compressive strength and elastic modulus of the nHAC/CGF group were higher than those of the nHAC group. The results suggest that nHAC/CGF materials can promote new bone formation, providing new ideas for the application of bone tissue engineering scaffold materials in oral clinics.
AbstractAfrican swine fever (ASF) is an acute hemorrhagic disease of domestic pigs. The causative agent of ASF, ASF virus (ASFV), is a double-stranded DNA virus, the sole member in the family Asfarviridae. The non-structural protein pB602L of ASFV is a molecular chaperone of the major capsid protein p72 and plays a key role in icosahedral capsid assembly. This protein is antigenic and is a target for developing diagnostic tools for ASF. To generate monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against pB602L, a prokaryotically expressed recombinant pB602L protein was produced, purified, and used as an antigen to immunize mice. A total of eight mouse mAbs were obtained, and their binding epitopes were screened by Western blot using an overlapping set of polypeptides from pB602L. Three linear epitopes were identified and designated epitope 1 (366ANRERYNY373), epitope 2 (415GPDAPGLSI423), and epitope 3 (498EMLNVPDD505). Based on the epitope recognized, the eight mAbs were placed into three groups: group 1 (B2A1, B2F1, and B2D10), group 2 (B2H10, B2B2, B2D8, and B2A3), and group 3 (B2E12). The mAbs B2A1, B2H10, and B2E12, each representing one of the groups, were used to detect pB602L in ASFV-infected porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) and pig tissues, using an indirect fluorescence assay (IFA) and immunohistochemical staining, respectively. The results showed that pB602L was detectable with all three mAbs in immunohistochemical staining, but only B2H10 was suitable for detecting the proteins in ASFV-infected PAMs by IFA. In summary, we developed eight anti-pB602L mouse mAbs recognizing three linear epitopes in the protein, which can be used as reagents for basic and applied research on ASFV.
Breast microcalcifications is a characteristic feature in diagnostic imaging and a prognostic factor of breast cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms of breast microcalcifications formation are not fully understood. Previous studies have shown that upregulation of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) is associated with the occurrence of microcalcifications and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in the tumor microenvironment can secrete BMP-2. The aim of this study is to elucidate the role of secretion of BMP-2 by TAMs in promoting microcalcifications of breast cancer through immunohistochemical staining and co-culturing of breast cancer cells with TAMs.
A total of 272 patients diagnosed with primary invasive breast cancer from January 2010 to January 2012 in the First Hospital of China Medical University were included in this study. Immunohistochemical staining of CD68 (marker of entire macrophages), CD168 (marker of the M2-like macrophages) and BMP-2 were performed on 4-μm tissue microarray (TMA) sections. Following induction, THP-1 cells were differentiated to M2-like TAMs and were then co-cultured with breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Calcifications and BMP-2 expression were analyzed by Alizarin Red S staining and western blot, respectively.
Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the expression of CD168 was significantly increased in tissues with microcalcifications and was correlated with the expression of BMP-2 and poor prognosis. The formation of cellular microcalcifications and BMP-2 expression were significantly increased in MCF-7 cells co-cultured with TAMs compared with MCF-7 cells alone.
These findings support the hypothesis that TAMs secrete BMP-2 to induce microcalcifications in breast cancer cells and influence prognosis via multiple pathways including BMP-2 and its downstream factors.
Constricted maxillary bone is a common skeletal deformity, which may lead to crowding and posterior crossbite. Mid-palatal suture expansion is often used to increase the maxillary width, but its skeletal effects are limited and tend to relapse, even with prolonged retention. We hypothesized that parathyroid hormone (PTH) may reduce the relapse of maxillary expansion.
We established a novel rat maxillary expansion model using palatal tubes with an insertable “W”-shaped spring which can be repeatedly activated. A total of 32 male healthy Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups: the control group, the PTH group, the expansion group, the expansion + PTH group, the expansion + relapse group and the expansion + PTH + relapse group. All animals in the first 4 groups were killed after 10 days and the 2 relapse groups were killed after 15 days. The maxillary arch widths and histological staining were used to assess the expansion and relapse effects. The immunohistochemical staining, micro-CT, RT-qPCR and Western blot were used to evaluate the bone remodeling during expansion.
The suture width was increased by the expansion device, and the repeated activation maxillary expansion rat model showed better expansion effects than the conventional model. PTH significantly promoted the expansion width and reduced the relapse ratio. Meanwhile, in the expansion + PTH group, histological and immunohistochemical staining showed that osteoblasts, osteoclasts, new cartilage and osteoid were significantly increased, micro-CT showed increased bone mass, and PCR and Western blot results confirmed up-regulation of RANKL, β-catenin, type II collagen and OCN.
The novel repeated activation maxillary expansion rat model has better effects than the conventional model. PTH enhances the maxillary expansion and reduces its relapse by regulating Wnt/β-catenin and RANKL pathways. PTH administration may serve as an adjunctive therapy in addition to mechanical expansion for treatment of maxillary constriction.
Background and Objective:
Myocardial infarction (MI) leads to pathological cardiac remodeling and heart failure. Sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS) shows therapeutic values. The present study aimed to explore the potential role of STS in ventricular remodeling post-MI
Mice were randomly divided into sham, MI + normal saline (NS) and MI + STS (20.8 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally) groups. MI was established following left anterior descending artery ligation. Cardiac function was evaluated using echocardiography. Scar size and myocardial fibrosis-associated markers were detected using Masson’s trichrome staining and western blot analysis (WB). Necrosis and inflammation were assessed using H&E staining, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) detection, ELISA, immunohistochemical staining, and WB. Furthermore, angiogenesis markers and associated proteins were detected using immunohistochemical staining and WB.
Mice treated with STS exhibited significant improvements in cardiac function, smaller scar size, and low expression levels of α-smooth muscle actin and collagen I and III at 28 days following surgery, compared with the NS-treated group. Moreover, treatment with STS reduced eosinophil necrosis, the infiltration of inflammatory cells, plasma levels of LDH, high mobility group protein B1, interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α, and protein expression of these cytokines at 3 days. Macrophage infiltration was also decreased in the STS group in the early phase. Additionally, CD31+ vascular density, protein levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, and vascular endothelial growth factor were elevated in the STS-treated mice at 28 days.
STS improved pathological remodeling post-MI, and the associated therapeutic effects may result from a decrease in myocardial necrosis, modulation of inflammation, and an increase in angiogenesis.
ObjectivesDetermine relationships between skin gene expression and systemic sclerosis (SSc) clinical disease features, and changes in skin gene expression over time.MethodsA total of 339 forearm skin biopsies were obtained from 113 SSc patients and 44 matched healthy controls. 105 SSc patients had a second biopsy, and 76 had a third biopsy. Global gene expression profiling was performed, and differentially expressed genes and cell type-specific signatures in SSc were evaluated for relationships to modified Rodnan Skin Score (mRSS) and other clinical variables. Changes in skin gene expression over time were analysed by mixed effects models and principal component analysis. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to validate conclusions.ResultsGene expression dysregulation was greater in SSc patients with affected skin than in those with unaffected skin. Immune cell and fibroblast signatures positively correlated with mRSS. High baseline immune cell and fibroblast signatures predicted higher mRSS over time, but were not independently predictive of longitudinal mRSS after adjustment for baseline mRSS. In early diffuse cutaneous SSc, immune cell and fibroblast signatures declined over time, and overall skin gene expression trended towards normalisation. On immunohistochemical staining, most early diffuse cutaneous SSc patients with high baseline T cell and macrophage numbers had declines in these numbers at follow-up.ConclusionsSkin thickness in SSc is related to dysregulated immune cell and fibroblast gene expression. Skin gene expression changes over time in early diffuse SSc, with a tendency towards normalisation. These observations are relevant for understanding SSc pathogenesis and could inform treatment strategies and clinical trial design.