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2022 ◽  
Sylvia Ang

Nearly eleven million Chinese migrants live outside of China. While many of these faces of China’s globalization headed for the popular Western destinations of the United States, Australia and Canada, others have been lured by the booming Asian economies. Compared with pre-1949 Chinese migrants, most are wealthier, motivated by a variety of concerns beyond economic survival and loyal to the communist regime. The reception of new Chinese migrants, however, has been less than warm in some places. In Singapore, tensions between Singaporean-Chinese and new Chinese arrivals present a puzzle: why are there tensions between ethnic Chinese settlers and new Chinese arrivals despite similarities in phenotype, ancestry and customs? Drawing on rich empirical data from ethnography and digital ethnography, Contesting Chineseness investigates this puzzle and details how ethnic Chinese subjects negotiate their identities in an age of contemporary Chinese migration and China’s ascent.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 ◽  
Jessica J. Santana

Virtual communities of practice invoke novel forms of boundary work that are newly visible via publicly recorded discourse and failure narratives. This boundary work has critical implications for occupational knowledge, membership, and stratification. Building on social exchange theorization of network gatekeeping, the author tests the assumption that centralized peers are more competitive gatekeepers, in that they react more negatively to remedial narratives. The author tests this theory using empirical data from a virtual entrepreneur community on Reddit. The author finds that a peer’s tenure in the community network is directly related to exclusive, competitive boundary work of remedial members. However, by looking beyond the network structure to the content of the tie, the author finds that exclusive boundary work is not as impactful as inclusive, collaborative boundary work in this open network setting. The author builds on relational cohesion and exchange commitment theory to explain how remedial practitioners circumvent central community gatekeepers through failure narratives that provoke empathy from peripheral peers who experience higher uncertainty than core peers. Understanding these dynamics is critical to promoting recovery from failure and vitality of the community of practice.

Entropy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
pp. 130
Michał Chorowski ◽  
Ryszard Kutner

Using the multiscale normalized partition function, we exploit the multifractal analysis based on directly measurable shares of companies in the market. We present evidence that markets of competing firms are multifractal/multiscale. We verified this by (i) using our model that described the critical properties of the company market and (ii) analyzing a real company market defined by the S&P500 index. As the valuable reference case, we considered a four-group market model that skillfully reconstructs this index’s empirical data. We point out that a four-group company market organization is universal because it can perfectly describe the essential features of the spectrum of dimensions, regardless of the analyzed series of shares. The apparent differences from the empirical data appear only at the level of subtle effects.

2022 ◽  
David MJ Naimark ◽  
Juan David Rios ◽  
Sharmistha Mihsra ◽  
Beate Sander ◽  
Petros Pechlivanoglou

Importance: Universal paid sick-leave (PSL) policies have been implemented in jurisdictions to mitigate the spread of SARS-CoV-2. However empirical data regarding health and economic consequences of PSL policies is scarce. Objective: To estimate effects of a universal PSL policy in Ontario, Canada's most populous province. Design: An agent-based model (ABM) to simulate SARS-CoV-2 transmission informed by data from Statistics Canada, health administrative sources, and from the literature. Setting: Ontario from January 1st to May 1st, 2021. Participants: A synthetic population (1 million) with occupation and household characteristics representative of Ontario residents (14.5 million). Exposure: A base case of existing employer-based PSL alone versus the addition of a 3- or 10-day universal PSL policy to facilitate testing and self-isolation among workers infected with SARS-CoV-2 themselves or because of infected household members. Main Outcome(s) and Measure(s): Number of SARS-CoV-2 infections and COVID-19 hospitalizations, worker productivity, lost wages, and presenteeism (going to a workplace while infected).

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (GROUP) ◽  
pp. 1-22
Audrey Labrie ◽  
Terrance Mok ◽  
Anthony Tang ◽  
Michelle Lui ◽  
Lora Oehlberg ◽  

Many instructors in computing and HCI disciplines use hands-on activities for teaching and training new skills. Beyond simply teaching hands-on skills like sketching and programming, instructors also use these activities so students can acquire tacit skills. Yet, current video-conferencing technologies may not effectively support hands-on activities in online teaching contexts. To develop an understanding of the inadequacies of current video-conferencing technologies for hands-on activities, we conducted 15 interviews with university-level instructors who had quickly pivoted their use of hands-on activities to an online context during the early part of the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on our analysis, we uncovered four pedagogical goals that instructors have when using hands-on activities online and how instructors were unable to adequately address them due to the technological limitations of current video-conferencing tools. Our work provides empirical data about the challenges that many instructors experienced, and in so doing, the pedagogical goals we identify provide new requirements for video-conferencing systems to better support hands-on activities.

2022 ◽  
Lucila Gisele Alvarez Zuzek ◽  
Casey M Zipfel ◽  
Shweta Bansal

The phenomenon of vaccine hesitancy behavior has gained ground over the last three decades, jeopardizing the maintenance of herd immunity. This behavior tends to cluster spatially, creating pockets of unprotected sub-populations that can be hotspots for outbreak emergence. What remains less understood are the social mechanisms that can give rise to spatial clustering in vaccination behavior, particularly at the landscape scale. We focus on the presence of spatial clustering, and aim to mechanistically understand how different social processes can give rise to this phenomenon. In particular, we propose two hypotheses to explain the presence of spatial clustering: (i) social selection, in which vaccine-hesitant individuals share socio-demographic traits, and clustering of these traits generates spatial clustering in vaccine hesitancy; and (ii) social influence, in which hesitant behavior is contagious and spreads through neighboring societies, leading to hesitant clusters. Adopting a theoretical spatial network approach, we explore the role of these two processes in generating patterns of spatial clustering in vaccination behaviors under a range of spatial structures. We find that both processes are independently capable of generating spatial clustering, and the more spatially structured the social dynamics in a society are, the higher spatial clustering in vaccine-hesitant behavior it realizes. Together, we demonstrate that these processes result in unique spatial configurations of hesitant clusters, and we validate our models on both processes with fine-grain empirical data on vaccine hesitancy, social determinants, and social connectivity in the US. Finally, we propose, and evaluate the effectiveness of, two novel intervention strategies to diminish hesitant behavior. Our generative modeling approach informed by unique empirical data provides insights on the role of complex social processes in driving spatial heterogeneity in vaccine hesitancy.

Risks ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 16
Aneta Ptak-Chmielewska ◽  
Paweł Kopciuszewski

After the financial crisis, the European Banking Authority (EBA) has established tighter standards around the definition of default (Capital Requirements Regulation CRR Article 178, EBA/GL/2017/16) to increase the degree of comparability and consistency in credit risk measurement and capital frameworks across banks and financial institutions. Requirements of the new definition of default (DoD) concern how banks recognize credit defaults for prudential purposes and include quantitative impact analysis and new rules of materiality. In this approach, the number and timing of defaults affect the validity of currently used risk models and processes. The recommendation presented in this paper is to address current gaps by considering a Bayesian approach for PD recalibration based on insights derived from both simulated and empirical data (e.g., a priori and a posteriori distributions). A Bayesian approach was used in two steps: to calculate the Long Run Average (LRA) on both simulated and empirical data and for the final model calibration to the posterior LRA. The Bayesian approach result for the PD LRA was slightly lower than the one calculated based on classical logistic regression. It also decreased for the historically observed LRA that included the most recent empirical data. The Bayesian methodology was used to make the LRA more objective, but it also helps to better align the LRA not only with the empirical data but also with the most recent ones.

Tadeáš Toulec ◽  
Stanislav Lhota ◽  
Katherine Scott ◽  
Alexander K. S. Putera ◽  
Wawan Kustiawan ◽  

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