scholarly journals The expression of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) in human blastocoel fluid–conditioned media: a proof of concept study

Shahryar K. Kavoussi ◽  
Shu-Hung Chen ◽  
John David Wininger ◽  
Arnav Lal ◽  
William E. Roudebush ◽  

Abstract Purpose The aim of this study was to determine if pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), typically measured in maternal serum and a potential predictor of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes such as spontaneous miscarriage, pre-eclampsia, and stillbirth, is expressed in blastocoel fluid–conditioned media (BFCM) at the embryonic blastocyst stage. Design This is an in vitro study. Methods BFCM samples from trophectoderm-tested euploid blastocysts (n = 80) from in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) patients were analyzed for PAPP-A mRNA. BFCM was obtained from blastocyst stage embryos in 20 uL drops. Blastocysts underwent trophectoderm biopsy for preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy prior to blastocyst vitrification and BFCM collection for snap freezing. cfDNA was synthesized using BFCM collected from 80 individual euploid blastocysts. Next, real-time qPCR was performed to detect expression of PAPP-A with GAPDH for normalization of expression in each sample. Results PAPP-A mRNA was detected in 45 of 80 BFCM samples (56.3%), with varying levels of expression across samples. Conclusion Our study demonstrates the expression of PAPP-A in BFCM. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report detection of PAPP-A mRNA in BFCM. Further studies are required and underway to investigate a greater number of BFCM samples as well as the possible correlation of PAPP-A expression with pregnancy outcomes of transferred euploid blastocysts. If found to predict IVF and obstetric outcomes, PAPP-A may provide additional information along with embryonic euploidy for the selection of the optimal blastocyst for embryo transfer.

1983 ◽  
Vol 40 (4) ◽  
pp. 539-541 ◽  
Michael J. Sinosich ◽  
David H. Smith ◽  
Jurgis G. Grudzinskas ◽  
Douglas M. Saunders ◽  
Jes G. Westergaard ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 03 (03) ◽  
pp. 108-114
Akshara Shyamsunder ◽  
Tristan Hardy ◽  
Anusch Yazdani ◽  
Alex Polyakov ◽  
Robert Norman ◽  

Research Question: Does the dose of gonadotropin used for superovulation in IVF affect the proportion of euploid blastocysts obtained after fertilization? Study Design: Multicentre randomized controlled trial recruiting 57 women who were treated with ovarian stimulation using either 150 or 300 IU Menopur per day. Both groups received GnRH antagonist from day 5 of ovarian stimulation and final oocyte maturation was induced using a leuprolide GnRH (gonadotropin releasing hormone) agonist trigger when three or more follicles reached 17 mm diameter. Oocyte collection was scheduled 36–38 hours post trigger. In vitro fertilization (IVF) or Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) were performed according to individual unit protocol and embryos were cultured to blastocyst stage. A trophectoderm biopsy was performed on day 5 of embryo culture and used for preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy. Euploid embryos were transferred in subsequent frozen embryo transfer cycles with appropriate endometrial preparation. Results: The number of oocytes obtained from women randomized to 150 IU Menopur was between 3 and 17 (mean = 9), whereas the number of oocytes obtained from women randomized to 300 IU Menopur was between 3 and 24 (mean = 11). There was a positive linear relationship between serum AMH concentration and oocyte yield in both the 150 and 300 IU Menopur groups ([Formula: see text] = 0.3359, [Formula: see text] = 0.1129 and [Formula: see text] = 0.3741, [Formula: see text] = 0.1399). The percentage of euploid to aneuploid embryos in the 150 IU Menopur group was 63% and in the 300 IU Menopur group, the proportion was 75%, which was not significantly different ([Formula: see text] = 0.17). Conclusion: The higher dose ovarian stimulation protocol did not significantly increase the number of oocytes retrieved, nor did the higher dose protocol reduce the proportion of euploid embryos created. This study does not support the hypothesis that use of higher doses of gonadotropin for ovarian stimulation results in a reduction in the proportion of euploid embryos obtained after IVF.

2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Norbert Gleicher ◽  
David H. Barad ◽  
Zion Ben-Rafael ◽  
Demian Glujovsky ◽  

AbstractTwo professional societies recently published opinions on the clinical management of “mosaic” results from preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy (PGT-A) in human blastocyst-stage embryos in associations with in vitro fertilization (IVF). We here point out three principal shortcomings: (i) Though a most recent societal opinion states that it should not be understood as an endorsement of the use of PGT-A, any discussion of how PGT-A should be clinically interpreted for all practical purposes does offer such an endorsement. (ii) The same guideline derived much of its opinion from a preceding guidance in favor of utilization of PGT-A that did not follow even minimal professional requirements for establishment of practice guidelines. (iii) Published guidelines on so-called “mosaic” embryos from both societies contradict basic biological characteristics of human preimplantation-stage embryos. They, furthermore, are clinically unvalidated and interpret results of a test, increasingly seen as harmful to IVF outcomes for many infertile women. Qualified professional organizations, therefore, should finally offer transparent guidelines about the utilization of PGT-A in association with IVF in general.

Lindsay Schneider ◽  
Anubhav Tripathi

Aneuploidy is caused by problems during cellular division and segregation errors during meiosis that lead to an abnormal number of chromosomes and initiate significant genetic abnormalities during pregnancy or the loss of a fetus due to miscarriage. Screening and diagnostic technologies have been developed to detect this genetic condition and provide parents with critical information about their unborn child. In this review, we highlight the complexities of aneuploidy as a disease as well as multiple technological advancements in testing that help to identify aneuploidy at various time points throughout pregnancy. We focus on aneuploidy diagnosis during preimplantation genetic testing that is performed during in vitro fertilization as well as prenatal screening and diagnosis during pregnancy. This review focuses on DNA-based analysis and laboratory techniques for aneuploidy detection through reviewing molecular- and engineering-based technical advancements. We also present key challenges in aneuploidy detection during pregnancy, including sample collection, mosaic embryos, economic factors, and the social implications of this testing. The goal of this review is to synthesize broad information about aneuploidy screening and diagnostic sample collection and analysis during pregnancy and discuss major challenges the field is still facing despite decades of advancements.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
pp. 263349412110098
Rhea Chattopadhyay ◽  
Elliott Richards ◽  
Valerie Libby ◽  
Rebecca Flyckt

Uterus transplantation is an emerging treatment for uterine factor infertility. In vitro fertilization with cryopreservation of embryos prior is required before a patient can be listed for transplant. Whether or not to perform universal preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy should be addressed by centers considering a uterus transplant program. The advantages and disadvantages of preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy in this unique population are presented. The available literature is reviewed to determine the utility of preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy in uterus transplantation protocols. Theoretical benefits of preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy include decreased time to pregnancy in a population that benefits from minimization of exposure to immunosuppressive agents and decreased chance of spontaneous abortion requiring a dilation and curettage. Drawbacks include increased cost per in vitro fertilization cycle, increased number of required in vitro fertilization cycles to achieve a suitable number of embryos prior to listing for transplant, and a questionable benefit to live birth rate in younger patients. Thoughtful consideration of whether or not to use preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy is necessary in uterus transplant trials. Age is likely a primary factor that can be useful in determining which uterus transplant recipients benefit from preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (6) ◽  
pp. 1758
Urszula Wójcik-Bojek ◽  
Joanna Rywaniak ◽  
Przemysław Bernat ◽  
Anna Podsędek ◽  
Dominika Kajszczak ◽  

Staphylococcus aureus is still one of the leading causes of both hospital- and community-acquired infections. Due to the very high percentage of drug-resistant strains, the participation of drug-tolerant biofilms in pathological changes, and thus the limited number of effective antibiotics, there is an urgent need to search for alternative methods of prevention or treatment for S. aureus infections. In the present study, biochemically characterized (HPLC/UPLC–QTOF–MS) acetonic, ethanolic, and water extracts from fruits and bark of Viburnum opulus L. were tested in vitro as diet additives that potentially prevent staphylococcal infections. The impacts of V. opulus extracts on sortase A (SrtA) activity (Fluorimetric Assay), staphylococcal protein A (SpA) expression (FITC-labelled specific antibodies), the lipid composition of bacterial cell membranes (LC-MS/MS, GC/MS), and biofilm formation (LIVE/DEAD BacLight) were assessed. The cytotoxicity of V. opulus extracts to the human fibroblast line HFF-1 was also tested (MTT reduction). V. opulus extracts strongly inhibited SrtA activity and SpA expression, caused modifications of S. aureus cell membrane, limited biofilm formation by staphylococci, and were non-cytotoxic. Therefore, they have pro-health potential. Nevertheless, their usefulness as diet supplements that are beneficial for the prevention of staphylococcal infections should be confirmed in animal models in the future.

2007 ◽  
Vol 53 (5) ◽  
pp. 947-954 ◽  
Claus Gyrup ◽  
Michael Christiansen ◽  
Claus Oxvig

Abstract Background: Maternal serum concentrations of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A, pappalysin-1, EC are used to predict the occurrence of Down syndrome. In pregnancy, PAPP-A primarily circulates as a covalent 2:2 complex with the proform of eosinophil major basic protein (proMBP), which inhibits the proteolytic activity of PAPP-A. At term, however, ∼1% of PAPP-A exists as an active, uncomplexed dimer with proteolytic activity directed specifically toward insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-4 and IGFBP-5. No assays have been developed that allow quantification of PAPP-A proteolytic activity. Methods: We developed a sensitive and specific immunocapture assay for PAPP-A activity based on intramolecular quenched fluorescence. We used a 26-residue synthetic peptide derived from IGFBP-4 in which specific positions on each side of the PAPP-A cleavage site were substituted with 3-nitrotyrosine and o-aminobenzoic acid. Results: The assay detected the activity of recombinant PAPP-A as well as PAPP-A in serum samples from pregnant women. The limit of detection (mean signal of blank plus 3 SD) of the active PAPP-A subunit was 13 pmol/L, and the intra- and interassay CVs were <10% and <15%, respectively. Interestingly, the fraction of active PAPP-A decreased gradually from week 7 to week 19 of pregnancy. Conclusions: This method allows the measurement of PAPP-A enzymatic activity and because of its specificity it is relevant to the study of the biological function of PAPP-A. The method may also be useful in the diagnosis of pregnancy disorders.

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