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Blood ◽  
2022 ◽  
Sylvie Cointe ◽  
Loris Vallier ◽  
Pierre Esnault ◽  
Mathilde Dacos ◽  
Amandine Bonifay ◽  

Microvesicles (MVs) have previously been shown to exert profibrinolytic capacity, which is increased in patients with septic shock (SS) with a favorable outcome. We therefore hypothesized that the plasmin generation capacity (PGC) could confer to MVs a protective effect supported by their capacity to lyse a thrombus, and we investigated the mechanisms involved. Using a MV-PGC kinetic assay, ELISA and flow cytometry, we found that granulocyte MVs (Gran-MVs) from SS patients display a heterogeneous PGC profile driven by the uPA (urokinase)/uPAR system. In vitro, these MVs lyse a thrombus according to their MV-PGC levels in a uPA/uPAR-dependent manner, as shown in a fluorescent clot lysis test and a lysis front retraction assay. Fibrinolytic activators conveyed by MVs contribute to approximately 30% of the plasma plasminogenolytic capacity of SS patients. In a murine model of SS, the injection of high PGC Gran-MVs significantly improved mouse survival and reduced the number of thrombi in vital organs. This was associated with a modification of the mouse coagulation and fibrinolysis properties toward a more fibrinolytic profile. Interestingly, mouse survival was not improved when soluble uPA was injected. Finally, using a multiplex array on plasma from SS patients, we found that neutrophil elastase correlates with the effect of high-PGC-capacity plasma and modulates the Gran-MV plasmin generation capacity by cleaving uPA-PAI-1 complexes. In conclusion, we show that high PGC level displayed by Gran-MVs reduce thrombus formation and improve survival conferring to Gran-MVs a protective role in a murine model of sepsis.

Ida Agersnap ◽  
Peter H. Nissen ◽  
Anne-Mette Hvas

AbstractPlasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) is a main inhibitor of fibrinolysis. The PAI-1 gene (SERPINE1) harbors genetic variants with the potential of modifying plasma levels of PAI-1. A delicate balance exists between the coagulation and fibrinolytic system, and changes in PAI-1 have been suggested to compromise establishment of a successful pregnancy. Therefore, this systematic review investigated the association between genetic variants and/or plasma levels of PAI-1 and placenta-mediated pregnancy complications. An extensive literature search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science on the 29th of April 2021. All studies underwent quality rating according to The Study Quality Assessment Tools checklist provided by National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. A total of 71 studies were included, among which 60 studies investigated PAI-1 genotypes and 11 studies measured PAI-1 plasma levels. In 32 out of 59 studies, no association was found between the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism (rs1799768) and placenta-mediated pregnancy complications, which was stated as no significant difference in the genotype distribution comparing women with and without placenta-mediated pregnancy complications or no significantly increased odds of placenta-mediated pregnancy complications carrying the 4G/4G or 4G/5G genotype. Eight out of 11 studies reported significantly higher PAI-1 plasma levels in preeclamptic women than in women without preeclampsia. In conclusion, no clear evidence indicates that PAI-1 polymorphisms are associated with placenta-mediated pregnancy complications, and the possible association between high PAI-1 plasma levels and preeclampsia needs further investigations. Thus, investigation of PAI-1 genotypes and PAI-1 plasma levels does not currently seem to have a place in daily clinical practice managing placenta-mediated pregnancy complications.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Shuai Li ◽  
Haibo Jia ◽  
Zhihang Liu ◽  
Nan Wang ◽  
Xiaochen Guo ◽  

AbstractFibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) performs a wide range of biological functions in organisms. Here, we report for the first time that FGF-21 suppresses thrombus formation with no notable risk of bleeding. Prophylactic and therapeutic administration of FGF-21 significantly improved the degree of vascular stenosis and reduced the thrombus area, volume and burden. We determined the antithrombotic mechanism of FGF-21, demonstrating that FGF-21 exhibits an anticoagulant effect by inhibiting the expression and activity of factor VII (FVII). FGF-21 exerts an antiplatelet effect by inhibiting platelet activation. FGF-21 enhances fibrinolysis by promoting tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) expression and activation, while inhibiting plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) expression and activation. We further found that FGF-21 mediated the expression and activation of tPA and PAI-1 by regulating the ERK1/2 and TGF-β/Smad2 pathways, respectively. In addition, we found that FGF-21 inhibits the expression of inflammatory factors in thrombosis by regulating the NF-κB pathway.

2022 ◽  
Yu Cui ◽  
Xin-Hong Wang ◽  
Yong Zhao ◽  
Shao-Yuan Chen ◽  
Bao-Ying Sheng ◽  

Abstract Objective Early neurological improvement (ENI) after intravenous thrombolysis is associated with favorable outcome, but associated serum biomarkers were not fully determined. We aimed to investigate the issue in a prospective cohort. Methods In INTRECIS study, five centers were designed to consecutively collect the blood sample from enrolled patients. Enrolled patients with ENI and without ENI were matched by propensity score matching with the ratio of 1:1. Preset 49 biomarkers were measured by protein microarray analysis. Enrichment of Gene Ontology and pathway, and protein-protein interaction network were analyzed in the identified biomarkers. Results Of 358 patients, 19 occurred ENI, who were assigned as ENI group, while 19 matched patients without ENI were assigned as Non ENI group. A total of 9 biomarkers were found different, among which levels of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL)-23, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)-12, insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-6, interleukin (IL)-5, lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor (LYVE)-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-AA, suppression of tumorigenicity (ST)-2, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were higher in ENI group, compared with those in Non ENI group. Interpretation: Our finding indicated that pretreatment serum CCL-23, CXCL-12, IGFBP-6, IL-5, LYVE-1, PAI-1, PDGF-AA, ST-2, and TNF-α levels were associated with post-thrombolytic ENI in ischemic stroke. The role of these biomarkers warrant further investigation. Registration-URL :; Unique identifier: NCT02854592.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Glory Omini Ibiang ◽  
Joseph Malachi ◽  
Mercy Omini Ibiang ◽  
Daniel Kenechi Chukwudi ◽  
Olanrewaju Ayodeji Durojaye

AbstractThe SARS-CoV-2 has infected many people globally with the ravaging COVID-19; a disease, which has become challenging for every aspect of modern healthcare. The saliva and oral mucosa are sites of high risk for increased viral loads, and aside from the usual epithelial functions like lining and protection, the oral mucosa is also specialized for crucial functions, such as secretion, mastication, sensory perception, and taste perception. The human ACE2 receptor has been extensively studied for its essential role in the regulation of blood pressure homeostasis. However, scRNA-Seq studies have revealed high expression levels of the protein in keratinized epithelial surfaces of the oral cavity. The SARS-CoV-2 have access to the host’s body by binding to the ACE2 receptor, leading to the cleavage and major conformational changes in the viral spike glycoprotein for the release of its nucleocapsid into the cellular cytoplasm. This proteolytic cleavage is carried out by the TMPRSS2 and cathepsin L. In this study, we harnessed the information from the binding interface of TMPRSS2 and PAI-1 (a protease inhibitor known to inhibit the TMPRSS2 and several other proteases) to design a potential therapeutic peptide for the inhibition of the TMPRSS2, while also emphasizing the need for preventive masking.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 334
Ji-Eun Kim ◽  
Jin-Sun Kim ◽  
Min-Jee Jo ◽  
Eunjung Cho ◽  
Shin-Young Ahn ◽  

Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic indicators that increase the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Visceral obesity and factors derived from altered adipose tissue, adipokines, play critical roles in the development of metabolic syndrome. Although the adipokines leptin and adiponectin improve insulin sensitivity, others contribute to the development of glucose intolerance, including visfatin, fetuin-A, resistin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). Leptin and adiponectin increase fatty acid oxidation, prevent foam cell formation, and improve lipid metabolism, while visfatin, fetuin-A, PAI-1, and resistin have pro-atherogenic properties. In this review, we briefly summarize the role of various adipokines in the development of metabolic syndrome, focusing on glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (4) ◽  
pp. 25-31
A. A. Parshina ◽  
N. N. Tsybikov ◽  
P. P. Tereshkov ◽  
T. M. Karavaeva ◽  
M. V. Maksimenya

Aim. To investigate formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and their impact on fibrinolysis in patients with colon cancer.Materials and methods. The study was performed in two groups. The experimental group consisted of patients with stage 2–3 non-metastatic colon cancer (n = 17, average age – 67 years). The control group included healthy volunteers matched by sex and age (n = 30, average age – 68 years). An experimental model was created from the whole blood. It included platelet-poor plasma and an isolated culture of neutrophils, previously induced to NETosis by adding 100 nmol PMA. The samples were incubated for 4 hours, then the test tubes were centrifuged to pellet cells and their remnants, and the plasma was transferred for subsequent examination. The plasma incubated with intact neutrophils was used as a control. The levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) were used to determine the degree of cell activation. NETosis was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and fluorescent microscopy. Fibrinolysis was assessed using the thrombodynamics test. The results were compared with the levels of fibrinolytic system components measured by flow cytometry.Results. In the control group, NETosis induction contributed to pronounced neutrophil activation that was accompanied by an increase in the IL-8, PSGL-1, and plasminogen levels, a decrease in PAI-1, and enhancement of fibrinolysis, compared with the intact samples. Higher levels of IL-8, PSGL-1, plasminogen, and PAI-1 and intensified fibrinolysis were detected in the intact samples. However, PMA-induced NETosis did not result in an increase in the degree of activation and significant changes in the given parameters.Conclusion. NETosis promotes both formation and lysis of fibrin clots. However, in cancer patients, suicidal NETosis does not contribute to fibrinolysis due to intracellular protease depletion, which may be one of the mechanisms causing hypercoagulation and insufficient fibrinolysis in cancer. 

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 478
Kiyotaka Okada ◽  
Naoyuki Kawao ◽  
Daisho Nakai ◽  
Rei Wakabayashi ◽  
Yoshitaka Horiuchi ◽  

Glucocorticoids delay fracture healing and induce osteoporosis. However, the mechanisms by which glucocorticoids delay bone repair have yet to be clarified. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the principal inhibitor of plasminogen activators and an adipocytokine that regulates metabolism. We herein investigated the roles of macrophages in glucocorticoid-induced delays in bone repair after femoral bone injury using PAI-1-deficient female mice intraperitoneally administered with dexamethasone (Dex). Dex significantly decreased the number of F4/80-positive macrophages at the damaged site two days after femoral bone injury. It also attenuated bone injury-induced decreases in the number of hematopoietic stem cells in bone marrow in wild-type and PAI-1-deficient mice. PAI-1 deficiency significantly weakened Dex-induced decreases in macrophage number and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) mRNA levels at the damaged site two days after bone injury. It also significantly ameliorated the Dex-induced inhibition of macrophage phagocytosis at the damaged site. In conclusion, we herein demonstrated that Dex decreased the number of macrophages at the damaged site during early bone repair after femoral bone injury partly through PAI-1 and M-CSF in mice.

Pullaiah Pasupuleti ◽  
M.M. Suchitra ◽  
Aparna R. Bitla ◽  
Alok Sachan

Abstract Objectives Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) associated with oxidative stress and inflammation causes endothelial dysfunction, which promotes cardiovascular risk. Vitamin D with its pleiotropic effect is said to protect against cardiovascular risk. However, with vitamin D deficiency being more prevalent in T2DM, the cardiovascular risk may get compounded. Materials and Methods An interventional study was conducted on 100 patients with T2DM having vitamin D deficiency (vitamin D < 20 ng/mL), who were given oral supplementation of 2,000 IU/day of vitamin D for a period of 6 months. Serum vitamin D, biomarkers of oxidative stress, malondialdehyde (MDA), oxidized LDL (OxLDL), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), biomarkers of inflammation, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and fibrinogen were measured at baseline and at the end of the third and sixth month of vitamin D supplementation. Statistical Analysis Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied for comparison between baseline and third- and sixth-month data after vitamin D supplementation. Linear regression by generalized estimating equations (GEE), which grouped repeated measures for each subject and accounted for correlations that may occur from multiple observations within subjects, was applied. Results Serum vitamin D levels reached normal levels with a significant decrease in OxLDL, hsCRP, IL-6, PAI-1, and fibrinogen levels, with a significant increase in FRAP (p = 0.001) levels at the end of 6 months of vitamin D supplementation. These changes were observed even after correction with glycemic control (HbA1c). However, a significant decrease in MDA was observed only at the end of the sixth month of vitamin D supplementation. Vitamin D levels showed a significant negative association with Ox-LDL, Hs-CRP, IL-6, PAI-1, and fibrinogen, even after adjusting for BMI and statin use (p = 0.001). Conclusion Supplementation of vitamin D for a period of 6 months in patients with T2DM having vitamin D deficiency is beneficial in the attenuation of oxidative stress and inflammation.

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