clot lysis
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Blood ◽  
2022 ◽  
Sylvie Cointe ◽  
Loris Vallier ◽  
Pierre Esnault ◽  
Mathilde Dacos ◽  
Amandine Bonifay ◽  

Microvesicles (MVs) have previously been shown to exert profibrinolytic capacity, which is increased in patients with septic shock (SS) with a favorable outcome. We therefore hypothesized that the plasmin generation capacity (PGC) could confer to MVs a protective effect supported by their capacity to lyse a thrombus, and we investigated the mechanisms involved. Using a MV-PGC kinetic assay, ELISA and flow cytometry, we found that granulocyte MVs (Gran-MVs) from SS patients display a heterogeneous PGC profile driven by the uPA (urokinase)/uPAR system. In vitro, these MVs lyse a thrombus according to their MV-PGC levels in a uPA/uPAR-dependent manner, as shown in a fluorescent clot lysis test and a lysis front retraction assay. Fibrinolytic activators conveyed by MVs contribute to approximately 30% of the plasma plasminogenolytic capacity of SS patients. In a murine model of SS, the injection of high PGC Gran-MVs significantly improved mouse survival and reduced the number of thrombi in vital organs. This was associated with a modification of the mouse coagulation and fibrinolysis properties toward a more fibrinolytic profile. Interestingly, mouse survival was not improved when soluble uPA was injected. Finally, using a multiplex array on plasma from SS patients, we found that neutrophil elastase correlates with the effect of high-PGC-capacity plasma and modulates the Gran-MV plasmin generation capacity by cleaving uPA-PAI-1 complexes. In conclusion, we show that high PGC level displayed by Gran-MVs reduce thrombus formation and improve survival conferring to Gran-MVs a protective role in a murine model of sepsis.

2022 ◽  
Jeong-Yeon Kim ◽  
Dipankar Manna ◽  
Trygve B Leergaard ◽  
Sandip M Kanse

Factor VII activating protease (FSAP) is a circulating serine protease, and individuals with the Marburg I (MI) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), which results in an inactive enzyme, have an increased risk of stroke. The outcome of ischemic stroke is more marked in FSAP-deficient mice compared to their wild-type (WT) counterparts. Plasma FSAP levels are raised in patients as well as mice after stroke. In vitro, FSAP promotes fibrinolysis by cleavage of fibrinogen, activates protease-activated receptors and decreases the cellular cytotoxicity of histones. Since these are desirable properties in stroke treatment, we tested the effect of recombinant serine protease domain of FSAP (FSAP-SPD) on ischemic stroke in mice. A combination of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and FSAP-SPD enhanced clot lysis, improved microvascular perfusion and neurological outcome and reduced infarct volumes in a mouse model of thromboembolic stroke. In the tail bleeding model FSAP-SPD treatment provoked a faster clotting time indicating that it has a pro-coagulant effect that is described before. FSAP-SPD improved stroke outcome and diminished the negative effects of co-treatment with tPA in the transient middle cerebral artery occlusion model. The inactive MI-isoform of FSAP did not have any effects in either model. In mice with FSAP deficiency there were minor differences in the outcomes of stroke but the treatment with FSAP-SPD was equally effective. Thus, FSAP represents a promising novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of ischemic stroke that requires further evaluation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (4) ◽  
pp. 87-94
I. A. Tikhomirova ◽  
M. M. Ryabov

Introduction. Clinical experience in managing patients with a new coronavirus infection caused by the SARS-CoV-2 allowed to identify specific hemostasis disorders, and enables to introduce the concept of COVID-associated coagulopathy. The aim of the study was to assess the direction of coagulogram parameter changes, whole blood clotting parameters and characteristics of platelet and plasma hemostasis in patients with severe COVID-19. Materials and methods. The parameters of the hemostasis system were assessed using venous blood of 12 patients with severe COVID-19 and 16 healthy volunteers. The whole blood clotting process was investigated by low-frequency piezothromboelastography. The platelet count and indicators of spontaneous and ADP-induced platelet aggregation were estimated with the help of a laser platelet aggregation analyzer. Fibrinolytic activity of plasma, plasminogen activity, content of fibrinogen, D-dimer, PTT, APTT, PTI and INR were assessed. Results. An increased level of fibrinogen, a 6-fold increased D-dimer level, and increased PTT were found in patients with severe COVID-19. The patient platelets count was reduced by 51 % (p <0.05), spontaneous platelet aggregation remained at nearly normal level. Almost complete inhibition of ADP-induced platelet reactivity and inhibition of XIIa-dependent fibrinolysis was revealed, despite an increased by 19.3 % (p <0.05) plasminogen activity. Parameters of the whole blood coagulation process pointed a pronounced activation of platelet hemostasis, a significant intensification of the polymerization stage of clot formation and an increased intensity of clot lysis and retraction. Conclusion. The significant increase of D-dimer level and paradoxical inhibition of plasma fibrinolytic activity revealed by test of XIIa-dependent fibrinolysis (in contrast to the increased intensity of clot lysis when assessing the coagulation of whole blood) indicate the complex pathogenic mechanisms of coagulopathy caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, and the involvement of blood cells and the vascular wall in the process of pathological thrombus formation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Martins Obinna Ogugofor ◽  
Ugochi Olivia Njoku ◽  
Obioma Uzoma Njoku ◽  
Gaber El-Saber Batiha

Abstract Background The most commonly occurring mechanism driving ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, and myocardial infarction is thrombosis. It is normally characterized by platelet activation and aggregation. Thrombolytics have been used in the treatment of several forms of thrombosis, but their adverse effects have limited their usefulness. Thus, there is a need to develop alternatives from medicinal plants known to possess antithrombotic activity such as Costus afer. Results The phytochemical evaluations indicated the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, tannins, terpenoids, and saponins. The antithrombotic profiling showed that streptokinase had the highest percentage clot lysis, followed by ethylacetate fraction of the extract, which was higher than aspirin and other fractions of the extract. Conclusion The present findings show that C. afer stem extract and various fractions possess antithrombotic activities. However, further studies are needed to characterize the antithrombotic bioactive compounds present in the different fractions that are responsible for the activities.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Liton Sikder ◽  
Md. Roich Khan ◽  
Shanita Zaman Smrity ◽  
Muhammad Torequl Islam ◽  
Shams Ara Khan

Abstract Background Traditionally, the herb Byttneria pilosa Roxb. is used for bone fractures, boils, scabies, rheumatalgia, snake bites, syphilis, elephantiasis, poisoning, and eye infection. Scientific reports suggest that it has significant anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-diarrheal, anxiolytic, locomotion, sedative and anti-obesity effects. This study aims at the investigation of the phytochemical and pharmacological properties of the ethanol extract of this herb. Methods Fresh whole plant was extracted with absolute ethanol. A preliminary phytochemical investigation was followed by the evaluation of thrombolytic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-nociceptive activities by applying human clotted blood lysis, egg albumin, and acetic acid-induced writhing models, respectively. Results Phytochemical investigation suggests that B. pilosa possesses alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids, tannins, saponins, and reducing sugars. The extract exhibited clot lysis and anti-inflammatory effects in a concentration-dependent manner. B. pilosa extract at 250 and 500 mg/kg also showed significant (p < 0.05) dose-dependent anti-nociceptive activity in Swiss albino mice. Conclusion The B. pilosa ethanol extract contains many important secondary metabolites and has thrombolytic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-nociceptive activities. More research is necessary on this hopeful medicinal herb.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 ◽  
pp. 1
Lailatul Nuraini ◽  
Bambang Tri Purwanto ◽  
Achmad Syahrani ◽  
Riesta Primaharinastiti ◽  
Achmad Toto Poernomo

Agen trombolitik merupakan plasminogen activator yang dapat memecah fibrin menjadi fibrin degradation product (FDP) dan dapat digunakan pada terapi penyakit kardiovaskular. Agen trombolitik dapat diperoleh dari mikroorganisme seperti Acetobacter tropicalis InaCC B374 dan dari tanaman seperti Centella asiatica. Kedua sumber agen trombolitik tersebut dapat dilakukan kombinasi melalui proses fermentasi untuk meningkatkan efek terapetiknya. Proses fermentasi sendiri dipengaruhi oleh beberapa faktor termasuk media fermentasi dan waktu fermentasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh proses fermentasi terhadap peningkatan aktivitas trombolitik dari hasil fermentasi Centella asiatica oleh Acetobacter tropicalis InaCC B374 pada berbagai variasi waktu fermentasi. Preparasi dilakukan dengan memfermentasi Centella asiatica selama 24, 48, dan 72 jam pada suhu 30°±1°C dengan kecepatan pengocokan 100 rpm kemudian ditentukan aktivitas trombolitiknya dengan metode clot lysis yang dilakukan inkubasi pada suhu 37°±1°C selama 60 menit. Hasil pengujian aktivitas trombolitik menunjukkan bahwa terjadi peningkatan aktivitas trombolitik setelah dilakukan proses fermentasi selama 24, 48 dan 72 jam dan aktivitas trombolitik maksimum tercapai pada hasil fermentasi 72 jam. Centella asiatica yang difermentasi selama 72 jam menunjukkan nilai indeks trombolitik yang paling besar (82,03) jika dibandingkan dengan infusa Centella asiatica tanpa fermentasi (37,39) dan Acetobacter tropicalis InaCC B374 (37,68). Disimpulkan bahwa proses fermentasi Centella asiatica oleh Acetobacter tropicalis InaCC B374 secara signifikan dapat meningkatkan aktivitas trombolitik keduanya

2021 ◽  
Vol 28 (2) ◽  
pp. 405-412
Mohammad Zashim Uddin ◽  
Atiya Begum Rifat ◽  
Farhana Yesmin Mitu ◽  
Tahmina Haque ◽  
Md Abdul Mazid

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are one of the major causes of death in the world. Medicinal plants with thrombolytic properties may be used as an alternative to modern medicines for CVDs. The present study was aimed to evaluate the thrombolytic potential of six medicinal plants available in Bangladesh using an in vitro clot lysis method where streptokinase and ethanol were used as a positive and negative control, respectively. Ethanolic extract at a dose of 10 mg/ml of Arjun tree (Terminalia arjuna), Garlic (Allium sativum), Elephant apple (Dillenia indica), Amla (Phyllanthus emblica), Yellow mombin (Spondias pinnata) and Burmese grape (Baccaurea ramiflora) showed 14.18 ± 1.23%, 10.72 ± 0.78%, 8.25 ± 0.42%, 7.08 ± 0.64%, 5.42 ± 0.47% and 2.47 ± 0.19% clot lysis, respectively, whereas the standard drug streptokinase lysed 41.11±0.31% clot at a dose of 30,000 IU. From the data, it is evident that ethanolic extracts of six selected medicinal plants possess a moderate to insignificant thrombolytic activities. Among these plants, Arjun tree and Garlic exhibited the highest thrombolytic activity and the Burmese grape showed the lowest thrombolytic activity. Through our study, it could be concluded that Arjun tree, Garlic, and Elephant apple might be used as traditional healing purposes of CVDs. However, further animal studies will prove the scientific justification of their uses. Conservation efforts should be given for Arjun tree, Elephant apple, Yellow mombin, Burmese grape, and Amla to save these plants from extinction in nature. Bangladesh J. Plant Taxon. 28(2): 405-412, 2021 (December)

2021 ◽  
pp. 021849232110691
Ricardo Poveda-Jaramillo

Coronavirus disease 2019 is the disease produced by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2, which is introduced into the host’s cell thanks to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor. Once there, it uses the cell’s machinery to multiply itself. In this process, it generates an immune response that stimulates the lymphocytes to produce cytokines and reactive oxygen species that begin to deteriorate the endothelial cell. Complement activation, through the complement attack complex and C5a, contributes to this endothelial damage. The different mediators further promote the expression of adhesion molecules on the endothelial surface, which encourages all blood cells to adhere to the endothelial surface to form small conglomerates, called clots, which obstruct the lumen of the small blood vessels. Furthermore, the mediators of clot lysis are inhibited. All this promotes a prothrombotic environment within the pulmonary capillaries that is reflected in the elevation of D-dimer. The only solution for this cascade of events seems to be the implementation of an effective anticoagulation protocol that early counteracts the changes induced by thrombi in the pulmonary circulation and reflected in the functioning of the right ventricle.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (24) ◽  
pp. 5976
Maciej Skubera ◽  
Aleksandra Gołąb ◽  
Dariusz Plicner ◽  
Joanna Natorska ◽  
Michał Ząbczyk ◽  

Objectives: thromboembolic complications are a major cause of morbidity and mortality following Fontan (FO) surgery. It is also well established that altered FO circulation results in systemic complications, including liver and endothelium damage. We sought to evaluate whether dysfunctions of these sources of hemostatic factors may result in changes of fibrin clot properties. Methods: a permeation coefficient (Ks) and clot lysis time (CLT) were assessed in 66 FO patients, aged 23.0 years [IQR 19.3–27.0], and 59 controls, aged 24.0 years [IQR 19.0–29.0]. Ks was determined using a pressure-driven system. CLT value was measured according to assay described by Pieters et al. Endothelium and liver-derived hemostatic factors along with liver function parameters were evaluated. The median time between FO operation and investigation was 20.5 years [IQR 16.3–22.0]. Results: FO patients had lower Ks (p = 0.005) and prolonged CLT (p < 0.001) compared to that of controls. Ks correlated with CLT (r = −0.28), FVIII (r = −0.30), FIX (r = −0.38), fibrinogen (r = −0.41), ALT (r = −0.25), AST (r = −0.26), GGTP (r = −0.27) and vWF antigen (r = −0.30), (all p < 0.05). CLT correlated with the time between FO operation and investigation (r = 0.29) and FIX (r = 0.25), (all p < 0.05). After adjustment for potential cofounders, TAFI antigen and GGTP were independent predictors of reduced Ks (OR 1.041 per 1% increase, 95% CI 1.009–1.081, p = 0.011 and OR 1.025 per 1 U/L increase, 95% CI 1.005–1.053, p = 0.033, respectively). Protein C and LDL cholesterol predicted prolonged CLT (OR 1.078 per 1% increase, 95% CI 1.027–1.153, p = 0.001 and OR 6.360 per 1 μmol/L increase, 95% CI 1.492–39.894, p = 0.011, respectively). Whereas elevated tPA was associated with lower risk of prolonged CLT (OR 0.550 per 1 ng/mL, 95% CI 0.314–0.854, p = 0.004). GGTP correlated positively with time between FO surgery and investigation (r = 0.25, p = 0.045) and patients with abnormal elevated GGTP activity (n = 28, 42.4%) had decreased Ks, compared to that of the others (5.9 × 10−9 cm2 vs. 6.8 × 10−9 cm2, p = 0.042). Conclusion: our study shows that cellular liver damage and endothelial injury were associated with prothrombotic clot phenotype reflected by Ks and CLT.

Malgorzata Wygrecka ◽  
Anna Birnhuber ◽  
Benjamin Seeliger ◽  
Laura Michalick ◽  
Oleg Pak ◽  

The high incidence of thrombotic events suggests a possible role of the contact system pathway in COVID-19 pathology. Here, we demonstrate altered levels of factor XII (FXII) and its activation products in critically ill COVID-19 patients in comparison to patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome due to influenza virus (ARDS-influenza). Compatible with this data, we report rapid consumption of FXII in COVID-19, but not in ARDS-influenza, plasma. Interestingly, the lag phase in fibrin formation, triggered by the FXII activator kaolin, was not prolonged in COVID-19 as opposed to ARDS-influenza. Using confocal and electron microscopy, we showed that increased FXII activation rate, in conjunction with elevated fibrinogen levels, triggers formation of fibrinolysis-resistant, compact clots with thin fibers and small pores in COVID-19. Accordingly, clot lysis was markedly impaired in COVID-19 as opposed to ARDS-infleunza subjects. Dysregulatated fibrinolytic system, as evidenced by elevated levels of thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor, tissue-plasminogen activator, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in COVID-19 potentiated this effect. Analysis of lung tissue sections revealed wide-spread extra- and intra-vascular compact fibrin deposits in COVID-19 patients. Together, compact fibrin network structure and dysregulated fibrinolysis may collectively contribute to high incidence of thrombotic events in COVID-19.

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