Background:This study aimed to evaluate the clinical and surgical characteristics of patients who required reoperation after mechanical mitral valve replacement (MVR).Methods:We retrospectively identified 204 consecutive patients who underwent reoperation after mechanical MVR between 2009 and 2018. Patients were categorized according the reason for reoperation (perivalvular leakage, thrombus formation, or pannus formation). The patients' medical and surgical records were studied carefully and the rates of in-hospital complications were calculated.Results:The mean age was 51±12 years and 44% of the patients were male. The reasons for reoperation were perivalvular leakage (117 patients), thrombus formation (35 patients), and pannus formation (52 patients). The most common positions for perivalvular leakage were at the 6–10 o'clock positions (proportions of ≥25% for each hour position). Most patients had an interval of >10 years between the original MVR and reoperation. The most common reoperation procedure was re-do MVR (157 patients), and 155 of these patients underwent concomitant cardiac procedures. There were 10 in-hospital deaths and 32 patients experienced complications. The 10-year survival rate was 82.2 ± 3.9% in general, and the group of lowest rate was patients with PVL (77.5 ± 5.2%). The independent risk factors were “male” (4.62, 95% CI 1.57–13.58, P = 0.005) and “Hb <9g/dL before redo MV operation” (3.45, 95% CI 1.13–10.49, P = 0.029).Conclusion:Perivalvular leakage was the most common reason for reoperation after mechanical MVR, with a low survival rate in long term follow-up relatively.
Thrombosis ranks among the major complications in blood-carrying medical devices and a better understanding to influence the design related contribution to thrombosis is desirable. Over the past years many computational models of thrombosis have been developed. However, numerically cheap models able to predict localized thrombus risk in complex geometries are still lacking. The aim of the study was to develop and test a computationally efficient model for thrombus risk prediction in rotary blood pumps.
We used a two-stage approach to calculate thrombus risk. The first stage involves the computation of velocity and pressure fields by computational fluid dynamic simulations. At the second stage, platelet activation by mechanical and chemical stimuli was determined through species transport with an Eulerian approach. The model was compared with existing clinical data on thrombus deposition within the HeartMate II. Furthermore, an operating point and model parameter sensitivity analysis was performed.
Our model shows good correlation (R2 > 0.93) with clinical data and identifies the bearing and outlet stator region of the HeartMate II as the location most prone to thrombus formation. The calculation of thrombus risk requires an additional 10–20 core hours of computation time.
The concentration of activated platelets can be used as a surrogate and computationally low-cost marker to determine potential risk regions of thrombus deposition in a blood pump. Relative comparisons of thrombus risk are possible even considering the intrinsic uncertainty in model parameters and operating conditions.
Background: Basilar artery fenestration has been proposed as a contributor to ischemic stroke, as unique flow patterns induced by fenestration may be related to thrombus formation or insufficiency. This study aimed to evaluate the hemodynamics of basilar artery fenestration (BAF) using computational fluid dynamics (CFD).Methods: Patients with BAF and normal vertebrobasilar system were recruited and separately evaluated using CFD. Specific geometric vascular models were reconstructed based on 3D-rotational angiography (3D-RA). Patients were divided into the BAF group and control group (i.e., patients with the normal vertebrobasilar system). Hemodynamic and geometric variables were calculated and compared between groups using Student's t-test or Wilcoxon rank-sum test.Results: Overall, 24 patients were included, with 12 patients each in the BAF group and the control group. The BAF group had a significantly smaller basilar artery diameter than the control group (3.1 ± 0.51 vs. 3.76 ± 0.4, p = 0.002). Compared to the control group, the BAF group had higher values of maxOSI (median, 0.3 vs. 0.09, p = 0.028), TAWSSG (median, 983.42 vs. 565.39, p = 0.038) in the flow confluence, higher SAR-TAWSSG in bifurcation (median, 70.22 vs. 27.65, p = 0.002) and higher SAR-TAWSSG in basilar artery (median, 48.75 vs. 16.17, p < 0.001) of the vertebrobasilar artery.Conclusions: This pilot study suggested that hemodynamic differences between BAF and normal vertebrobasilar artery across multiple shear flow parameters. The disturbed flow in the BAF may increase the risk of thrombus formation, plaque instability, and subsequent ischemic cerebrovascular events. These should be confirmed by future studies.
Microvesicles (MVs) have previously been shown to exert profibrinolytic capacity, which is increased in patients with septic shock (SS) with a favorable outcome. We therefore hypothesized that the plasmin generation capacity (PGC) could confer to MVs a protective effect supported by their capacity to lyse a thrombus, and we investigated the mechanisms involved. Using a MV-PGC kinetic assay, ELISA and flow cytometry, we found that granulocyte MVs (Gran-MVs) from SS patients display a heterogeneous PGC profile driven by the uPA (urokinase)/uPAR system. In vitro, these MVs lyse a thrombus according to their MV-PGC levels in a uPA/uPAR-dependent manner, as shown in a fluorescent clot lysis test and a lysis front retraction assay. Fibrinolytic activators conveyed by MVs contribute to approximately 30% of the plasma plasminogenolytic capacity of SS patients. In a murine model of SS, the injection of high PGC Gran-MVs significantly improved mouse survival and reduced the number of thrombi in vital organs. This was associated with a modification of the mouse coagulation and fibrinolysis properties toward a more fibrinolytic profile. Interestingly, mouse survival was not improved when soluble uPA was injected. Finally, using a multiplex array on plasma from SS patients, we found that neutrophil elastase correlates with the effect of high-PGC-capacity plasma and modulates the Gran-MV plasmin generation capacity by cleaving uPA-PAI-1 complexes. In conclusion, we show that high PGC level displayed by Gran-MVs reduce thrombus formation and improve survival conferring to Gran-MVs a protective role in a murine model of sepsis.
Cancer patients have increased SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility and are prone to developing severe COVID-19 infections. The incidence of venous thrombosis is approximately 20% in COVID-19 patients with cancer. It has been suggested that thrombus formation has been suggested to correlate with severe clinical manifestations, mortality, and sequelae. In this review, we primarily elaborate on the pathophysiological mechanisms of thrombosis in COVID-19 patients with cancer, emphasize the role of microparticles (MPs) and phosphatidylserine (PS) in coagulation, and propose an antithrombotic strategy. The coagulation mechanisms of COVID-19 and cancer synergistically amplify the coagulation cascade, and collectively promotes pulmonary microvascular occlusion. During systemic coagulation, the virus activates immune cells to release abundant proinflammatory cytokines, referred to as cytokine storm, resulting in the apoptosis of tumor and blood cells and subsequent MPs release. Additionally, we highlight that tumor cells contribute to MPs and coagulation by apoptosis owing to insufficient blood supply. A positive feedback loop of cytokines storm and MPs storm promotes microvascular coagulation storm, leading to microthrombi formation and inadequate blood perfusion. Microthrombi-damaged endothelial cells (ECs), tumor, and blood cells further aggravate the apoptosis of the cells and facilitate MPs storm. PS, especially on MPs, plays a pivotal role in the blood coagulation process, contributing to clot initiation, amplification, and propagation. Since coagulation is a common pathway of COVID-19 and cancer, and associated with mortality, patients would benefit from antithrombotic therapy. The above results lead us to assert that early stage antithrombotic therapy is optimal. This strategy is likely to maintain blood flow patency contributing to viral clearance, attenuating the formation of cytokines and MPs storm, maintaining oxygen saturation, and avoiding the progress of the disease.
Humans produce and remove 1011 platelets daily to maintain a steady-state platelet count. The production of platelets by bone marrow megakaryocytes and their removal from the blood circulation are tightly regulated mechanisms, and abnormalities in both processes can result in thrombocytopenia (low platelet count) or thrombocytosis (high platelet count), often associated with the risk of bleeding or overt thrombus formation, respectively. This review focuses on the role of glycans, also known as carbohydrates or oligosaccharides, including N- and O-glycans, proteoglycans, and glycosaminoglycans, in human and mouse platelet and megakaryocyte physiology. Based on recent clinical observations and mouse models, we focused on the pathological aspects of glycan biosynthesis and degradation and its effects on platelet numbers and megakaryocyte function.
Introduction. Clinical experience in managing patients with a new coronavirus infection caused by the SARS-CoV-2 allowed to identify specific hemostasis disorders, and enables to introduce the concept of COVID-associated coagulopathy. The aim of the study was to assess the direction of coagulogram parameter changes, whole blood clotting parameters and characteristics of platelet and plasma hemostasis in patients with severe COVID-19. Materials and methods. The parameters of the hemostasis system were assessed using venous blood of 12 patients with severe COVID-19 and 16 healthy volunteers. The whole blood clotting process was investigated by low-frequency piezothromboelastography. The platelet count and indicators of spontaneous and ADP-induced platelet aggregation were estimated with the help of a laser platelet aggregation analyzer. Fibrinolytic activity of plasma, plasminogen activity, content of fibrinogen, D-dimer, PTT, APTT, PTI and INR were assessed. Results. An increased level of fibrinogen, a 6-fold increased D-dimer level, and increased PTT were found in patients with severe COVID-19. The patient platelets count was reduced by 51 % (p <0.05), spontaneous platelet aggregation remained at nearly normal level. Almost complete inhibition of ADP-induced platelet reactivity and inhibition of XIIa-dependent fibrinolysis was revealed, despite an increased by 19.3 % (p <0.05) plasminogen activity. Parameters of the whole blood coagulation process pointed a pronounced activation of platelet hemostasis, a significant intensification of the polymerization stage of clot formation and an increased intensity of clot lysis and retraction. Conclusion. The significant increase of D-dimer level and paradoxical inhibition of plasma fibrinolytic activity revealed by test of XIIa-dependent fibrinolysis (in contrast to the increased intensity of clot lysis when assessing the coagulation of whole blood) indicate the complex pathogenic mechanisms of coagulopathy caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, and the involvement of blood cells and the vascular wall in the process of pathological thrombus formation.
Thromboembolic events are frequently reported in patients infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The exact mechanisms of COVID-19-associated hypercoagulopathy, however, remain elusive. Recently, we observed that platelets (PLTs) from patients with severe COVID-19 infection express high levels of procoagulant markers, which were found to be associated with increased risk for thrombosis. In the current study, we investigated the time course as well as the mechanisms leading to procoagulant PLTs in COVID-19. Our study demonstrates the presence of PLT-reactive IgG antibodies that induce marked changes in PLTs in terms of increased inner-mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψ) depolarization, phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization, and P-selectin expression. The IgG-induced procoagulant PLTs and increased thrombus formation were mediated by ligation of PLT Fc-γ RIIA (FcγRIIA). In addition, contents of calcium and cyclic-adenosine-monophosphate (cAMP) in PLTs were identified to play a central role in antibody-induced procoagulant PLT formation. Most importantly, antibody-induced procoagulant events, as well as increased thrombus formation in severe COVID-19, were inhibited by Iloprost, a clinically approved therapeutic agent that increases the intracellular cAMP levels in PLTs. Our data indicate that upregulation of cAMP could be a potential therapeutic target to prevent antibody-mediated coagulopathy in COVID-19 disease.
AbstractFibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) performs a wide range of biological functions in organisms. Here, we report for the first time that FGF-21 suppresses thrombus formation with no notable risk of bleeding. Prophylactic and therapeutic administration of FGF-21 significantly improved the degree of vascular stenosis and reduced the thrombus area, volume and burden. We determined the antithrombotic mechanism of FGF-21, demonstrating that FGF-21 exhibits an anticoagulant effect by inhibiting the expression and activity of factor VII (FVII). FGF-21 exerts an antiplatelet effect by inhibiting platelet activation. FGF-21 enhances fibrinolysis by promoting tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) expression and activation, while inhibiting plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) expression and activation. We further found that FGF-21 mediated the expression and activation of tPA and PAI-1 by regulating the ERK1/2 and TGF-β/Smad2 pathways, respectively. In addition, we found that FGF-21 inhibits the expression of inflammatory factors in thrombosis by regulating the NF-κB pathway.