Abstract Two cellulose nanocrystals/single-walled carbon nanotube (CNC/SW) hybrids, using two cellulose polymorphs, were evaluated as electrochemical transducers: CNC type I (CNC-I/SW) and CNC type II (CNC-II/SW). They were synthesized and fully characterized, and their analytical performance as electrochemical sensors was carefully studied. In comparison with SWCNT-based and screen-printed carbon electrodes, CNC/SW sensors showed superior electroanalytical performance in terms of sensitivity and selectivity, not only in the detection of small metabolites (uric acid, dopamine, and tyrosine) but also in the detection of complex glycoproteins (alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP)). More importantly, CNC-II/SW exhibited 20 times higher sensitivity than CNC-I/SW for AGP determination, yielding a LOD of 7 mg L−1.These results demonstrate the critical role played by nanocellulose polymorphism in the electrochemical performance of CNC/SW hybrid materials, opening new directions in the electrochemical sensing of these complex molecules. In general, these high-active-surface hybrids smartly exploited the preserved non-oxidized SW conductivity with the high aqueous dispersibility of the CNC, avoiding the use of organic solvents or the incorporation of toxic surfactants during their processing, making the CNC/SW hybrids promising nanomaterials for electrochemical detection following greener approaches.