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2022 ◽  
Vol 106 ◽  
pp. 10-18
Author(s):  
Ying Guo ◽  
Congqi Li ◽  
Peiling Wei ◽  
Kai Hou ◽  
Meifang Zhu

Author(s):  
Wen Wang ◽  
Dongqing Liu ◽  
Haifeng Cheng ◽  
Taishan Cao ◽  
Yuelin Li ◽  
...  

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 628
Author(s):  
Yinlong Zhu ◽  
Xin Chen ◽  
Kaimei Chu ◽  
Xu Wang ◽  
Zhiqiang Hu ◽  
...  

Flexible sensing tends to be widely exploited in the process of human–computer interactions of intelligent robots for its contact compliance and environmental adaptability. A novel flexible capacitive tactile sensor was proposed for multi-directional force sensing, which is based on carbon black/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite dielectric layer and upper and lower electrodes of carbon nanotubes/polydimethylsiloxane (CNTs/PDMS) composite layer. By changing the ratio of carbon black, the dielectric constant of carbon black/PDMS composite layer increases at 4 wt%, and then decreases, which was explained according to the percolation theory of the conductive particles in the polymer matrix. Mathematical model of force and capacitance variance was established, which can be used to predict the value of the applied force. Then, the prototype with carbon black/PDMS composite dielectric layer was fabricated and characterized. SEM observation was conducted and a ratio was introduced in the composites material design. It was concluded that the dielectric constant of carbon sensor can reach 0.1 N within 50 N in normal direction and 0.2 N in 0–10 N in tangential direction with good stability. Finally, the multi-directional force results were obtained. Compared with the individual directional force results, the output capacitance value of multi-directional force was lower, which indicated the amplitude decrease in capacity change in the normal and tangential direction. This might be caused by the deformation distribution in the normal and tangential direction under multi-directional force.


Author(s):  
Keagan Pokpas ◽  
Nazeem Jahed ◽  
Petrone Bezuidenhout ◽  
Suzanne Smith ◽  
Kevin Land ◽  
...  

Electrochemical detection of metal cations at paper-based sensors has been suggested as an attractive alternative to current spectroscopic and chromatographic detection techniques due to the ease of fabrication, disposable nature, and low cost. Herein, a novel carbon black (CB), dimethylglyoxime (DMG) ink is designed as an electrode modifier in conjunction with 3-electrode inkjet-printed paper substrates for use in the adsorptive stripping voltammetric electroanalysis of nickel cations in water samples. The developed method provides a novel, low-cost, rapid, and portable adsorptive stripping detection approach towards metal analysis in the absence of the commonly used toxic metallic films. The study demonstrated a novel approach to nickel detection at paper-based sensors and builds on previous work in the field of paper-based metal analysis by limiting the use of toxic metal films. The device sensitivity is improved by increasing the active surface area, electron transfer kinetics, and catalytic effects associated with non-conductive dimethylglyoxime films through CB nanoparticles for the first time and confirmed by electroanalysis. The first use of the CB-DMG ink allows for the selective preconcentration of analyte at the electrode surface without the use of toxic Mercury or Bismuth metallic films. Compared to similarly reported paper-based sensors, improved limits of detection (48 µg L-1), selectivity, and intermetallic interferences were achieved. The method was applied to the detection of nickel in water samples well below World Health Organization (WHO) standards.


Author(s):  
Mehdi Karevan

Carbon-based reinforcements have been widely reported in improving mechanical properties of polymers. However, still few studies exist on the incorporation of the interphase as a result of the interfacial interactions into analytical prediction tools. To better understand the effect of interfacial interphase, this study compares and correlates the experimental mechanical response of polyester based composites filled with carbon black (CB) with the elastic behavior obtained from the micromechanical models. Mold cast composites of polyester reinforced with 0 wt%–10 wt% of CB were fabricated. To determine the length of cooperative rearranging region (CRR) as a measure of the interphase, thermal studies focusing on the variations in the specific heat capacity or the relaxation strength of the composites around the glass transition temperature ( Tg) range were performed using a thermodynamical model. Micromechanical models such as the Halpin-Tsai and Tandon-Weng were used to determine the Young’s modulus with respect to the CB wt% and diameter as well as the interphase thickness and modulus. The results exhibited the sensitivity of the models to the existence of the interphase as a secondary mechanism, which was correlated to the cross-link density and interfacial bonding. The impact results showed the decrease in the impact resistance upon the addition of higher filler loadings ascribed to the destroyed bonding at the interface and CBs agglomeration confirmed by morphological studies. The research results can be further utilized in the explanation of the changes in the elastic response of carbon-based reinforced thermosetting composites emphasizing the key role of interphase.


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