Hyperammonemia-induced changes in the cerebral transcriptome and proteome

2022 ◽  
pp. 114548
Alina Schrimpf ◽  
Olivia Knappe ◽  
Natalia Qvartskhava ◽  
Gereon Poschmann ◽  
Kai Stühler ◽  
E. Knapek ◽  
H. Formanek ◽  
G. Lefranc ◽  
I. Dietrich

A few years ago results on cryoprotection of L-valine were reported, where the values of the critical fluence De i.e, the electron exposure which decreases the intensity of the diffraction reflections by a factor e, amounted to the order of 2000 + 1000 e/nm2. In the meantime a discrepancy arose, since several groups published De values between 100 e/nm2 and 1200 e/nm2 /1 - 4/. This disagreement and particularly the wide spread of the results induced us to investigate more thoroughly the behaviour of organic crystals at very low temperatures during electron irradiation.For this purpose large L-valine crystals with homogenuous thickness were deposited on holey carbon films, thin carbon films or Au-coated holey carbon films. These specimens were cooled down to nearly liquid helium temperature in an electron microscope with a superconducting lens system and irradiated with 200 keU-electrons. The progress of radiation damage under different preparation conditions has been observed with series of electron diffraction patterns and direct images of extinction contours.

Sarah A. Luse

In the mid-nineteenth century Virchow revolutionized pathology by introduction of the concept of “cellular pathology”. Today, a century later, this term has increasing significance in health and disease. We now are in the beginning of a new era in pathology, one which might well be termed “organelle pathology” or “subcellular pathology”. The impact of lysosomal diseases on clinical medicine exemplifies this role of pathology of organelles in elucidation of disease today.Another aspect of cell organelles of prime importance is their pathologic alteration by drugs, toxins, hormones and malnutrition. The sensitivity of cell organelles to minute alterations in their environment offers an accurate evaluation of the site of action of drugs in the study of both function and toxicity. Examples of mitochondrial lesions include the effect of DDD on the adrenal cortex, riboflavin deficiency on liver cells, elevated blood ammonia on the neuron and some 8-aminoquinolines on myocardium.

L. T. Germinario

Understanding the role of metal cluster composition in determining catalytic selectivity and activity is of major interest in heterogeneous catalysis. The electron microscope is well established as a powerful tool for ultrastructural and compositional characterization of support and catalyst. Because the spatial resolution of x-ray microanalysis is defined by the smallest beam diameter into which the required number of electrons can be focused, the dedicated STEM with FEG is the instrument of choice. The main sources of errors in energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDS) are: (1) beam-induced changes in specimen composition, (2) specimen drift, (3) instrumental factors which produce background radiation, and (4) basic statistical limitations which result in the detection of a finite number of x-ray photons. Digital beam techniques have been described for supported single-element metal clusters with spatial resolutions of about 10 nm. However, the detection of spurious characteristic x-rays away from catalyst particles produced images requiring several image processing steps.

P.T. Nguyen ◽  
C. Uphoff ◽  
C.L. Stinemetz

Considerable evidence suggest that the calcium-binding protein calmodulin (CaM) may mediate calcium action and/or transport important in the gravity response of plants. Calmodulin is present in both shoots and roots and is capable of regulating calcium transport in plant vesicles. In roots calmodulin is concentrated in the tip, the gravisensing region of the root; and is reported to be closely associated with amyloplasts, organelles suggested to play a primary role in gravi-perception. Inhibitors of CaM such as chlorpromazine, calmidazolium, and compound 48/80 interfere with the gravitropic response of both snoots and roots. The magnitude of the inhibition corresponded well with the extent to which the drug binds to endogenous CaM. Compound 48/80 and calmidazolium block gravi-induced changes in electrical currents across root tips, a phenomenon thought to be associated with the sensing of the gravity stimulus.In this study, we have investigated the subcellular distribution of CaM in graviresponsive and non-graviresponsive root caps of the maize cultivar Merit.

M. Shlepr ◽  
C. M. Vicroy

The microelectronics industry is heavily tasked with minimizing contaminates at all steps of the manufacturing process. Particles are generated by physical and/or chemical fragmentation from a mothersource. The tools and macrovolumes of chemicals used for processing, the environment surrounding the process, and the circuits themselves are all potential particle sources. A first step in eliminating these contaminants is to identify their source. Elemental analysis of the particles often proves useful toward this goal, and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) is a commonly used technique. However, the large variety of source materials and process induced changes in the particles often make it difficult to discern if the particles are from a common source.Ordination is commonly used in ecology to understand community relationships. This technique usespair-wise measures of similarity. Separation of the data set is based on discrimination functions. Theend product is a spatial representation of the data with the distance between points equaling the degree of dissimilarity.

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