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2022 ◽  
Vol 304 ◽  
pp. 114294
Minh N. Nguyen ◽  
Anh T.Q. Nguyen ◽  
Stefan Dultz ◽  
Toshiki Tsubota ◽  
Lim T. Duong ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Driss Laghlam ◽  
Julien Charpentier ◽  
Zakaria Ait Hamou ◽  
Lee S. Nguyen ◽  
Frédéric Pene ◽  

Background:The effect of prone positioning (PP) on respiratory mechanics remains uncertain in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO).Methods:We prospectively analyzed the effects of PP on respiratory mechanics from continuous data with over a thousand time points during 16-h PP sessions in patients with COVID-19 and ARDS under VV-ECMO conditions. The evolution of respiratory mechanical and oxygenation parameters during the PP sessions was evaluated by dividing each PP session into four time quartiles: first quartile: 0–4 h, second quartile: 4–8 h, third quartile: 8–12 h, and fourth quartile: 12–16 h.Results:Overall, 38 PP sessions were performed in 10 patients, with 3 [2–5] PP sessions per patient. Seven (70%) patients were responders to at least one PP session. PP significantly increased the PaO2/FiO2 ratio by 14 ± 21% and compliance by 8 ± 15%, and significantly decreased the oxygenation index by 13 ± 18% and driving pressure by 8 ± 12%. The effects of PP on respiratory mechanics but not on oxygenation persisted after supine repositioning. PP-induced changes in different respiratory mechanical parameters and oxygenation started as early as the first-time quartile, without any difference in PP-induced changes among the different time quartiles. PP-induced changes in driving pressure (−14 ± 14 vs. −6 ± 10%, p = 0.04) and mechanical power (−11 ± 13 vs. −0.1 ± 12%, p = 0.02) were significantly higher in responders (increase in PaO2/FiO2 ratio > 20%) than in non-responder patients.Conclusions:In patients with COVID-19 and severe ARDS, PP under VV-ECMO conditions improved the respiratory mechanical and oxygenation parameters, and the effects of PP on respiratory mechanics persisted after supine repositioning.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Sylva Prerostova ◽  
Jana Jarosova ◽  
Petre I. Dobrev ◽  
Lucia Hluskova ◽  
Vaclav Motyka ◽  

Inter-organ communication and the heat stress (HS; 45°C, 6 h) responses of organs exposed and not directly exposed to HS were evaluated in rice (Oryza sativa) by comparing the impact of HS applied either to whole plants, or only to shoots or roots. Whole-plant HS reduced photosynthetic activity (Fv/Fm and QY_Lss), but this effect was alleviated by prior acclimation (37°C, 2 h). Dynamics of HSFA2d, HSP90.2, HSP90.3, and SIG5 expression revealed high protection of crowns and roots. Additionally, HSP26.2 was strongly expressed in leaves. Whole-plant HS increased levels of jasmonic acid (JA) and cytokinin cis-zeatin in leaves, while up-regulating auxin indole-3-acetic acid and down-regulating trans-zeatin in leaves and crowns. Ascorbate peroxidase activity and expression of alternative oxidases (AOX) increased in leaves and crowns. HS targeted to leaves elevated levels of JA in roots, cis-zeatin in crowns, and ascorbate peroxidase activity in crowns and roots. HS targeted to roots increased levels of abscisic acid and auxin in leaves and crowns, cis-zeatin in leaves, and JA in crowns, while reducing trans-zeatin levels. The weaker protection of leaves reflects the growth strategy of rice. HS treatment of individual organs induced changes in phytohormone levels and antioxidant enzyme activity in non-exposed organs, in order to enhance plant stress tolerance.

2022 ◽  
Vol 72 (1) ◽  
Zeynab Sayahi ◽  
Alireza Komaki ◽  
Masoud Saidi Jam ◽  
Seyed Asaad Karimi ◽  
Safoura Raoufi ◽  

AbstractThe entorhinal cortex (EC) plays a pivotal role in epileptogenesis and seizures. EC expresses high density of serotonergic receptors, especially 5-HT3 receptors. Cognitive impairment is common among people with epilepsy. The present study investigated the role of 5-HT3 receptor on the severity of seizures and learning and memory impairment by electrical kindling of amygdala in rats. The amygdala kindling was conducted in a chronic kindling manner in male Wistar rats. In fully kindled animals, ramosetron (as a potent and selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist) was microinjected unilaterally (ad doses of 1, 10 or 100 µg/0.5 µl) into the EC 5 min before the novel object recognition (NOR) and Y-maze tests or kindling stimulations. Applying ramosetron at the concentration of 100 μg/0.5 µl (but not at 1 and 10 µg/0.5 µl) reduced afterdischarge (AD) duration and increased stage 4 latency in the kindled rats. Moreover, the obtained data from the NOR test showed that treatment by ramosetron (10 and 100 µg/0.5 µl) increased the discrimination index in the fully kindled animals. Microinjection of ramosetron (10 and 100 µg/0.5 µl) in fully kindled animals reversed the kindling induced changes in the percentage of spontaneous alternation in Y-maze task. The findings demonstrated an anticonvulsant role for a selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist microinjected into the EC, therefore, suggesting an excitatory role for the EC 5-HT3 receptors in the amygdala kindling model of epilepsy. This anticonvulsive effect was accompanied with a restoring effect on cognitive behavior in NOR and Y-maze tests.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Nabamita Boruah ◽  
Chongtham Sovachandra Singh ◽  
Pooja Swargiary ◽  
Hughbert Dkhar ◽  
Anupam Chatterjee

Abstract Background Raw areca nut (RAN) consumption induces oral, esophageal and gastric cancers, which are significantly associated with the overexpression of pituitary tumor transforming gene 1/securin and chromosomal instability (CIN). An association of Securin/PTTG1 upregulation and gastric cancer in human was also demonstrated earlier. Since the molecular mechanism underlying securin upregulation remains unclear, this study intended to investigate the association of securin upregulation with the Rb-E2F1 circuit and epigenetic histone (H3) modification patterns both globally and in the promoter region of the securin gene. Methods Six groups of mice were used, and in the treated group, each mouse consumed 1 mg of RAN extract with lime per day ad libitum in the drinking water for 60 days, after which the dose was increased by 1 mg every 60 days. Histopathological evaluation of stomach tissues was performed and securin expression was analysed by immunoblotting as well as by immunohistochemistry. ChIP-qPCR assays were performed to evaluate the recruitment of different histone modifications in the core promoter region of securin gene as well as its upstream and downstream regions. Results All mice developed gastric cancer with securin overexpression after 300 days of feeding. Immunohistochemistry data revealed hyperphosphorylation of Rb and upregulation of E2F1 in the RAN-treated samples. Increased trimethylation of H3 lysine 4 and acetylation of H3 lysine 9 and 18 both globally and in the promoter region of the securin gene were observed by increasing the levels of lysine-N-methyltransferase 2A, lysine-acetyltransferase, EP-300 and PCAF after RAN treatment. ChIP-qPCR data revealed that the quantity of DNA fragments retrieved from the immunoprecipitated samples was maximum in the -83 to -192 region than further upstream and the downstream of the promoter for H3K4Me3, H3K9ac, H3K18ac and H3K9me3. Conclusions RAN-mediated pRb-inactivation induced securin upregulation, a putative E2F1 target, by inducing misregulation in chromatin remodeling in its promoter region, which led to transcriptional activation and subsequent development of chromosomal instability. Therefore, present results have led to the hypothesis that RAN-induced changes in the epigenetic landscape, securin overexpression and subsequent elevation of chromosomal instability is probably byproducts of inactivation of the pRb pathway.

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. 223-239
Rémy Asselot ◽  
Frank Lunkeit ◽  
Philip B. Holden ◽  
Inga Hense

Abstract. We investigate the ways in which marine biologically mediated heating increases the surface atmospheric temperature. While the effects of phytoplankton light absorption on the ocean have gained attention over the past years, the impact of this biogeophysical mechanism on the atmosphere is still unclear. Phytoplankton light absorption warms the surface of the ocean, which in turn affects the air–sea heat and CO2 exchanges. However, the contribution of air–sea heat versus CO2 fluxes in the phytoplankton-induced atmospheric warming has not been yet determined. Different so-called climate pathways are involved. We distinguish heat exchange, CO2 exchange, dissolved CO2, solubility of CO2 and sea-ice-covered area. To shed more light on this subject, we employ the EcoGEnIE Earth system model that includes a new light penetration scheme and isolate the effects of individual fluxes. Our results indicate that phytoplankton-induced changes in air–sea CO2 exchange warm the atmosphere by 0.71 ∘C due to higher greenhouse gas concentrations. The phytoplankton-induced changes in air–sea heat exchange cool the atmosphere by 0.02 ∘C due to a larger amount of outgoing longwave radiation. Overall, the enhanced air–sea CO2 exchange due to phytoplankton light absorption is the main driver in the biologically induced atmospheric heating.

2022 ◽  
Tommaso Mari ◽  
Kristin Moesbauer ◽  
Emanuel Wyler ◽  
Markus Landthaler ◽  
Christian Drosten ◽  

Phosphoproteomics routinely quantifies changes in the levels of thousands of phosphorylation sites, but functional analysis of such data remains a major challenge. While databases like PhosphoSitePlus contain information about many phosphorylation sites, the vast majority of known sites are not assigned to any protein kinase. Assigning changes in the phosphoproteome to the activity of individual kinases therefore remains a key challenge.. A recent large-scale study systematically identified in vitro substrates for most human protein kinases. Here, we reprocessed and filtered these data to generate an in vitro Kinase-to-Phosphosite database (iKiP-DB). We show that iKiP-DB can accurately predict changes in kinase activity in published phosphoproteomic datasets for both well-studied and poorly characterized kinases. We apply iKiP-DB to a newly generated phosphoproteomic analysis of SARS-CoV-2 infected human lung epithelial cells and provide evidence for coronavirus-induced changes in host cell kinase activity. In summary, we show that iKiP-DB is widely applicable to facilitate the functional analysis of phosphoproteomic datasets.

Parasitologia ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 13-26
Christian K. Meiser ◽  
Jennifer K. Pausch ◽  
Günter A. Schaub

Intestinal homeostasis mechanisms of the haematophagous triatomines regulate the development of mutualistic symbionts and other gut bacteria. Investigating antimicrobial compounds of these insects, we have determined spectrophotometrically that the bacteriolytic activity is between pH 3 and pH 9 using homogenates of fifth instar Triatoma infestans stomachs and small intestines from unfed bugs and up to 50 days after feeding. The activity against Gram-positive Micrococcus luteus was strongest at pH 4 and pH 7 and was higher in the stomach than in the small intestine. Symbiotic Rhodococcus triatomae were not lysed. Lysis of Gram-negative Escherichia coli showed a maximum at pH 7 in the stomach and at pH 5 in the small intestine. Bacteriolytic activity against both M. luteus and E. coli was reduced 24 h after feeding, then increased, and at 50 days after feeding was strongly reduced. In zymographs, the activity against M. luteus was mainly correlated to proteins of about 16 kDa. At different periods of time after feeding, seven bands of lysis appeared between 15 and 40 kDa and more bands using extracts of the small intestine than those of the stomach. This is the first proof for the synthesis of antibacterial proteins of 22–40 kDa in triatomines.

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