health and disease
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2022 ◽  
Lauren Anton ◽  
Briana Ferguson ◽  
Elliot S. Friedman ◽  
Kristin Gerson ◽  
Amy G. Brown ◽  

Abstract Background: The cervicovaginal (CV) microbiome is highly associated with vaginal health and disease in both pregnant and non-pregnant individuals. An overabundance of Gardnerella vaginalis in the CV space is commonly associated with adverse reproductive outcomes including bacterial vaginosis (BV), sexually transmitted diseases and preterm birth while the presence of Lactobacillus spp is often associated with reproductive health. While host-microbial interactions are hypothesized to contribute to CV health and disease, the mechanisms by which these interactions regulate CV epithelial function remain largely unknown. Results: Using an in vitro co-culture model, we assessed the effects of Lactobacillus crispatus and G. vaginalis on the CV epithelial barrier, the immune mediators that could be contributing to decreased barrier integrity and the immune signaling pathways regulating the immune response. G. vaginalis, but not L. crispatus, significantly increased epithelial cell death and decreased epithelial barrier integrity in an epithelial cell-specific manner. A G. vaginalis-mediated epithelial immune response including NFkB activation and proinflammatory cytokine release was initiated partially through TLR2 dependent signaling pathways. Additionally, investigation of the cytokine immune profile in human CV fluid showed distinctive clustering of cytokines by G. vaginalis abundance and birth outcome. Conclusions: The results of this study show both microbe- and epithelial cell-type specific effects on CV epithelial function. Altered epithelial barrier function through cell death and immune mediated mechanisms by G. vaginalis, but not L. crispatus, indicates that host epithelial cells respond to bacteria-associated signals, resulting in altered epithelial function and ultimately CV disease. Additionally, distinct immune signatures associated with G. vaginalis or birth outcome provide further evidence that host-microbial interactions may contribute significantly to the biological mechanisms regulating reproductive outcomes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Ricardo Melo Ferreira ◽  
Benjamin J. Freije ◽  
Michael T. Eadon

The kidney is composed of heterogeneous groups of epithelial, endothelial, immune, and stromal cells, all in close anatomic proximity. Spatial transcriptomic technologies allow the interrogation of in situ expression signatures in health and disease, overlaid upon a histologic image. However, some spatial gene expression platforms have not yet reached single-cell resolution. As such, deconvolution of spatial transcriptomic spots is important to understand the proportion of cell signature arising from these varied cell types in each spot. This article reviews the various deconvolution strategies discussed in the 2021 Indiana O’Brien Center for Microscopy workshop. The unique features of Seurat transfer score methodology, SPOTlight, Robust Cell Type Decomposition, and BayesSpace are reviewed. The application of normalization and batch effect correction across spatial transcriptomic samples is also discussed.

Laura E.R. Blok ◽  
Marina Boon ◽  
Boyd van Reijmersdal ◽  
Kira D. Höffler ◽  
Michaela Fenckova ◽  

Habituation, the most ancient and fundamental form of learning, manifests already before birth. Neuroscientists have been fascinated for decades by its function as a firewall protecting our brains from sensory information overload and its indispensability for higher cognitive processing. Evidence that habituation learning is affected in autism and related monogenic neurodevelopmental syndromes and their animal models has exponentially grown, but the potential of this convergence to advance both fields is still largely unexploited.In this review, we provide a systematic overview of the genes that to date have been demonstrated to underlie habituation across species. We describe the biological processes they converge on, and highlight core regulatory pathways and repurposable drugs that may alleviate the habituation deficits associated with their dysregulation. We also summarize currently used habituation paradigms and extract the most important arguments from literature that support the crucial role of habituation for cognition in health and disease. We conclude that habituation is a powerful tool to overcome current bottlenecks in research, diagnostics and treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders.

Alfredo Cabrera-Orefice ◽  
Alisa Potter ◽  
Felix Evers ◽  
Johannes F. Hevler ◽  
Sergio Guerrero-Castillo

Complexome profiling (CP) is a state-of-the-art approach that combines separation of native proteins by electrophoresis, size exclusion chromatography or density gradient centrifugation with tandem mass spectrometry identification and quantification. Resulting data are computationally clustered to visualize the inventory, abundance and arrangement of multiprotein complexes in a biological sample. Since its formal introduction a decade ago, this method has been mostly applied to explore not only the composition and abundance of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes in several species but also to identify novel protein interactors involved in their assembly, maintenance and functions. Besides, complexome profiling has been utilized to study the dynamics of OXPHOS complexes, as well as the impact of an increasing number of mutations leading to mitochondrial disorders or rearrangements of the whole mitochondrial complexome. Here, we summarize the major findings obtained by this approach; emphasize its advantages and current limitations; discuss multiple examples on how this tool could be applied to further investigate pathophysiological mechanisms and comment on the latest advances and opportunity areas to keep developing this methodology.

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 250
Germana Meroni ◽  
Solange Desagher

The field of the Tripartite Motif (TRIM) family has progressively attracted increasing interest during the last two decades [...]

2022 ◽  
Vol 31 (163) ◽  
pp. 210111
Ranjani Somayaji ◽  
James D. Chalmers

Chronic lung diseases are the third leading cause of death worldwide and are increasing in prevalence over time. Although much of our traditional understanding of health and disease is derived from study of the male of the species – be it animal or human – there is increasing evidence that sex and gender contribute to differences in disease risk, prevalence, presentation, severity, treatment approach, response and outcomes. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma and bronchiectasis represent the most prevalent and studied chronic lung diseases and have key sex- and gender-based differences which are critical to consider and incorporate into clinical and research approaches. Mechanistic differences present opportunities for therapeutic development whereas behavioural and clinical differences on the part of patients and providers present opportunities for greater education and understanding at multiple levels. In this review, we seek to summarise the sex- and gender-based differences in key chronic lung diseases and outline the clinical and research implications for stakeholders.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 808
Petra A. Tsuji ◽  
Dolph L. Hatfield

The selenium field expanded at a rapid rate for about 45 years, from the mid-1970’s until about 2015 (see [...]

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