Acid Metabolism
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2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Ce Shi ◽  
Yangfang Ye ◽  
Feng Pei ◽  
Changkao Mu ◽  
Chunlin Wang

Demand from consumers for small quantities of live swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus is rising with the development of e-commerce. However, it is challenging to keep P. trituberculatus alive post-capture. In this study, a transport bag containing oxygen and seawater (24 ppt) was used to investigate the survival and metabolic changes of P. trituberculatus during transport. The results showed that more than 80% P. trituberculatus could survive at least 24 h in the transport bag. The ability of the crabs to survive may be attributed to adaptive metabolism, as suggested by the switch from an aerobic to an anaerobic pathway for energy generation and a decline in amino acid metabolism, nucleic acid metabolism, and osmoregulation. Our findings suggest that the transport bag could effectively extend the post-capture survival time of P. trituberculatus. Metabolic adaptation – especially energy homeostasis – is crucial for crab survival during transport. Our study provides a promising method for the transport of live P. trituberculatus.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
Hua Yang ◽  
Fei Wang ◽  
Xinya Guo ◽  
Feng Liu ◽  
Zhonghua Liu ◽  

AbstractPathogenic mycobacteria induce the formation of hypoxic granulomas during latent tuberculosis (TB) infection, in which the immune system contains, but fails to eliminate the mycobacteria. Fatty acid metabolism-related genes are relatively overrepresented in the mycobacterial genome and mycobacteria favor host-derived fatty acids as nutrient sources. However, whether and how mycobacteria modulate host fatty acid metabolism to drive granuloma progression remains unknown. Here, we report that mycobacteria under hypoxia markedly secrete the protein Rv0859/MMAR_4677 (Fatty-acid degradation A, FadA), which is also enriched in tuberculous granulomas. FadA acts as an acetyltransferase that converts host acetyl-CoA to acetoacetyl-CoA. The reduced acetyl-CoA level suppresses H3K9Ac-mediated expression of the host proinflammatory cytokine Il6, thus promoting granuloma progression. Moreover, supplementation of acetate increases the level of acetyl-CoA and inhibits the formation of granulomas. Our findings suggest an unexpected mechanism of a hypoxia-induced mycobacterial protein suppressing host immunity via modulation of host fatty acid metabolism and raise the possibility of a novel therapeutic strategy for TB infection.

2021 ◽  
Xiu Liu ◽  
Yuzhu Sha ◽  
Weibing Lv ◽  
Xinyu Guo ◽  
Xiaoning Pu ◽  

Abstract BackgroundTibetan sheep are important ruminants on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. They can maintain a normal life and reproduce in harsh environments under extreme cold and low oxygen. However, the molecular and metabolic mechanisms underlying the adaptability of Tibetan sheep during the cold season are still unclear. Hence, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of rumen epithelial morphology, epithelial transcriptomics, microbiology and metabolomics in a Tibetan sheep model to understand the interaction between the rumen host and microbiota and their metabolites and to explore the potential regulatory mechanism of Tibetan sheep adaptability to the cold season of the plateau. ResultsMorphological analysis showed that the ruminal muscle layer thickness and nipple width of Tibetan sheep increased significantly during the cold season ( P <0.05), and the thickness of the stratum corneum, stratum granulosa and stratum spinous of the rumen epithelium increased significantly ( P <0.05). Transcriptomics analysis showed that the differential genes were primarily enriched in the PPAR signaling pathway (ko03320), legionellosis (ko05134), phagosome (ko04145), arginine and proline metabolism (ko00330), and metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450 (ko00980). Unique differential metabolites were identified in cold season, such as cynaroside A, sanguisorbin B and tryptophyl-valine, which were mainly enriched in arachidonic acid metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism and linolenic acid metabolism pathways, and had certain correlation with microorganisms. Integrated transcriptome-metabolome-microbiome analysis showed that epithelial gene- GSTM3 expression was upregulated in the metabolism of xenobiotics by the cytochrome P450 pathway during the cold season, leading to the downregulation of some harmful metabolites; TLR5 gene expression was upregulated and CD14 gene expression was downregulated in the legionellosis pathway during the cold season. A large number of metabolites, such as glucosidic acid and vitamin A, were produced in the steroid hormone biosynthesis and retinol metabolism pathways. ConclusionThis study comprehensively described the interaction mechanism between the rumen host and microbes and their metabolites in grazing Tibetan sheep during the cold season. Under the stimulation of the cold plateau environment, the morphological structure of the rumen epithelium of Tibetan sheep undergoes adaptive changes. Rumen epithelial genes, microbiota and metabolites act together in some key pathways related to cold season adaptation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Muhammad Suleman Qasim ◽  
Mirka Lampi ◽  
Minna-Maria K. Heinonen ◽  
Berta Garrido-Zabala ◽  
Dennis H. Bamford ◽  

Species of genus Shewanella are among the most frequently identified psychrotrophic bacteria. Here, we have studied the cellular properties, growth dynamics, and stress conditions of cold-active Shewanella strain #4, which was previously isolated from Baltic Sea ice. The cells are rod-shaped of ~2μm in length and 0.5μm in diameter, and they grow between 0 and 25°C, with an optimum at 15°C. The bacterium grows at a wide range of conditions, including 0.5–5.5% w/v NaCl (optimum 0.5–2% w/v NaCl), pH 5.5–10 (optimum pH 7.0), and up to 1mM hydrogen peroxide. In keeping with its adaptation to cold habitats, some polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as stearidonic acid (18:4n-3), eicosatetraenoic acid (20:4n-3), and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3), are produced at a higher level at low temperature. The genome is 4,456kb in size and has a GC content of 41.12%. Uniquely, strain #4 possesses genes for sialic acid metabolism and utilizes N-acetyl neuraminic acid as a carbon source. Interestingly, it also encodes for cytochrome c3 genes, which are known to facilitate environmental adaptation, including elevated temperatures and exposure to UV radiation. Phylogenetic analysis based on a consensus sequence of the seven 16S rRNA genes indicated that strain #4 belongs to genus Shewanella, closely associated with Shewanella aestuarii with a ~97% similarity, but with a low DNA–DNA hybridization (DDH) level of ~21%. However, average nucleotide identity (ANI) analysis defines strain #4 as a separate Shewanella species (ANI score=76). Further phylogenetic analysis based on the 92 most conserved genes places Shewanella strain #4 into a distinct phylogenetic clade with other cold-active marine Shewanella species. Considering the phylogenetic, phenotypic, and molecular characterization, we conclude that Shewanella strain #4 is a novel species and name it Shewanella glacialimarina sp. nov. TZS-4T, where glacialimarina means sea ice. Consequently, S. glacialimarina TZS-4T constitutes a promising model for studying transcriptional and translational regulation of cold-active metabolism.

Phyton ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 91 (2) ◽  
pp. 239-255
Deka Reine Judesse Soviguidi ◽  
Rui Pan ◽  
Yi Liu ◽  
Liping Rao ◽  
Wenying Zhang ◽  

2021 ◽  
Fawen Dai ◽  
Tao Lin ◽  
Lumin Cheng ◽  
Jian Wang ◽  
Jianjun Zuo ◽  

Abstract Necrotic enteritis is common in broilers, which makes negative effects on growth performance. Adding insoluble fiber to diet of broilers has been reported to improve intestinal health and promote growth performance. Bamboo powder is a cheap raw material with rich insoluble fiber. This study aims to explore the effects of feeding micronized bamboo powder (MBP) on growth performance, serum biochemical indexes, intestinal microflora, and metabolism of broilers. A total of 1440 1-day-old ephedra chickens were randomly divided into three groups considering gender and body weight: (1) Group D: feeding with basal diet without antibiotics; (2) Group E: feeding with basal diet supplemented with 5% rice bran (RB); (3) Group F: feeding with basal diet supplemented with 1% MBP. Each group involved 8 replicates, with 60 chickens per replicate. After feeding for 22 days, various indexes were detected. For the growth performance, the weight gain and feed consumption ratio (G: F) of Group F supplemented with MBP is 0.57 ± 0.04, which is significantly higher than that of E group supplemented with RB (0.52 ± 0.01, P < 0.05). For the serum biochemical indexes, the glutathione peroxidase activity in Group F is significantly higher than that of in Group D, while the malondialdehyde content is significantly lower than that of in Group D and Group E (P < 0.05 for all). The fresh cecal chyme is taken for determination. In Group F, the α diversity index Faith_pd is significantly lower in Group F than that of in Group D. The microorganism species in cecal chyme of Group F and Group E are also different. The metabolic pathways of Group F differ from those of Group D and Group E, mainly manifested in fatty acid metabolism, amino acid metabolism and intestinal immune IgA production. Adding 1% MBP to broiler diet can enhance the anti-oxidant capacity, improve chyme microflora, regulate the metabolism pathways responsible for intestinal fatty acids, amino acids, and immunity.

Pablo Ranea‐Robles ◽  
Hongjie Chen ◽  
Brandon Stauffer ◽  
Chunli Yu ◽  
Dipankar Bhattacharya ◽  

2021 ◽  
Qiong Lyu ◽  
Weiliang Zhu ◽  
Ting Wei ◽  
Weimin Ding ◽  
Manming Cao ◽  

João Pedro Ferreira ◽  
Silvio E. Inzucchi ◽  
Michaela Mattheus ◽  
Thomas Meinicke ◽  
Dominik Steubl ◽  

2021 ◽  
Miyang Wan ◽  
Cheng Peng ◽  
Wenxin Ding ◽  
Mengran Wang ◽  
Jinfeng Hu ◽  

Abstract Phosphate concentration above 10 mM reduces the production of many secondary metabolites; however, the phenomenon is not mechanistically understood yet. Specifically, the problem of phosphorus limitation in antibiotic production remains unresolved. This study investigates the phosphorus inhibition effect on spinosad production and alleviates it by calcium and phosphate supplementation to fermentation media. Furthermore, we examined the mechanism of fatty acids induced increase in polyketides production. NaH2PO4 was found to be the most effective phosphate. Under the optimal phosphate condition, the maximal spinosad production reached 520 mg/L, showing a 1.65-fold increase over the control treatment. In the NaH2PO4-CaCO3 system, the de novo fatty acid biosynthesis was significantly downregulated while spinosad biosynthesis and β-oxidation were upregulated. The coordination of de novo fatty acid biosynthesis and β-oxidation promoted intracellular acetyl-CoA concentration. The results demonstrate that NaH2PO4-CaCO3 combined addition is a simple and effective strategy to alleviate phosphorus inhibition effect through the regulation of fatty acid metabolism and accumulation of immediate precursors. This information improves our understanding of phosphates' influence on the large-scale production of polyketides.

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