evoked potentials
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Federica Ginanneschi ◽  
Cesare Vittori ◽  
Rossana Tassi ◽  
Ilaria Severi ◽  
Federico Giuggioli ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Tom Maudrich ◽  
Susanne Hähner ◽  
Rouven Kenville ◽  
Patrick Ragert

BackgroundSomatosensory-evoked potentials (SEP) represent a non-invasive tool to assess neural responses elicited by somatosensory stimuli acquired via electrophysiological recordings. To date, there is no comprehensive evaluation of SEPs for the diagnostic investigation of exercise-induced functional neuroplasticity. This systematic review aims at highlighting the potential of SEP measurements as a diagnostic tool to investigate exercise-induced functional neuroplasticity of the sensorimotor system by reviewing studies comparing SEP parameters between athletes and healthy controls who are not involved in organized sports as well as between athlete cohorts of different sport disciplines.MethodsA systematic literature search was conducted across three electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, and SPORTDiscus) by two independent researchers. Three hundred and ninety-seven records were identified, of which 10 cross-sectional studies were considered eligible.ResultsDifferences in SEP amplitudes and latencies between athletes and healthy controls or between athletes of different cohorts as well as associations between SEP parameters and demographic/behavioral variables (years of training, hours of training per week & reaction time) were observed in seven out of 10 included studies. In particular, several studies highlight differences in short- and long-latency SEP parameters, as well as high-frequency oscillations (HFO) when comparing athletes and healthy controls. Neuroplastic differences in athletes appear to be modality-specific as well as dependent on training regimens and sport-specific requirements. This is exemplified by differences in SEP parameters of various athlete populations after stimulation of their primarily trained limb.ConclusionTaken together, the existing literature suggests that athletes show specific functional neuroplasticity in the somatosensory system. Therefore, this systematic review highlights the potential of SEP measurements as an easy-to-use and inexpensive diagnostic tool to investigate functional neuroplasticity in the sensorimotor system of athletes. However, there are limitations regarding the small sample sizes and inconsistent methodology of SEP measurements in the studies reviewed. Therefore, future intervention studies are needed to verify and extend the conclusions drawn here.

2022 ◽  
Nelly Seusing ◽  
Sebastian Strauss ◽  
Robert Fleischmann ◽  
Christina Nafz ◽  
Sergiu Groppa ◽  

Abstract ObjectiveThe role of ipsilateral descending motor pathways in voluntary movement of humans is still a matter of debate. Few studies have examined the task dependent modulation of ipsilateral motor evoked potentials (iMEPs). Here, we determined the location of upper limb biceps brachii (BB) representation within the ipsilateral primary motor cortex. MethodsMR-navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation mapping of the dominant hemisphere was undertaken with twenty healthy participants who made tonic unilateral, bilateral homologous or bilateral antagonistic elbow flexion-extension voluntary contractions. Map center of gravity (CoG) and area for each BB were obtained. ResultsThe map CoG of the ipsilateral BB was located more anterior-laterally than those of the contralateral BB within the primary motor cortex. However different tasks had no effect on either the iMEP CoG location or the size. ConclusionOur data suggests that ipsilateral and contralateral MEP might originate in distinct adjacent neural populations in the primary motor cortex, independent of task dependence.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Bo Sun ◽  
Hongfen Wang ◽  
Zhaohui Chen ◽  
Fang Cui ◽  
Fei Yang ◽  

Background: Contact heat evoked potentials (CHEPs) is used to diagnose small fiber neuropathy (SFN). We established the normal values of CHEPs parameters in Chinese adults, optimized the test technique, and determined its reproducibility.Methods: We recruited 151 healthy adults (80 men; mean age, 37 ± 14 years). CHEPs was performed on the right forearm to determine the optimal number of stimuli, and then conducted at different sites to establish normal values, determine the effects of demographic characteristics and baseline temperature, and assess the short- (30 min) and long-term (1 year) reproducibility. N2 latency/height varied with age and sex, while P2 latency/height and N2–P2 amplitude varied with age. The optimal number of stimuli was three.Results: N2 latency/height (t = 5.45, P < 0.001) and P2 latency/height (χ2 = −4.06, P < 0.001) decreased and N2–P2 amplitude (t = −5.01, P < 0.001) and visual analog scale score (χ2 = −5.84, P < 0.001) increased with increased baseline temperature (35 vs. 32°C). CHEPs parameters did not differ with time (baseline vs. 30 min vs. 1 year).Conclusion: We established normal CHEPs values in Chinese adults. We found that CHEPs parameters changed with baseline temperature and that the short- and long-term test reproducibility were satisfactory.

2022 ◽  
Kumari Liza ◽  
Supratim Ray

Steady-state visually evoked potentials (SSVEP) are widely used to index top-down cognitive processing in human electroencephalogram (EEG) studies. Typically, two stimuli flickering at different temporal frequencies (TFs) are presented, each producing a distinct response in the EEG at its flicker frequency. However, how SSVEP responses in EEG are modulated in the presence of a competing flickering stimulus just due to sensory interactions is not well understood. We have previously shown in local field potentials (LFP) recorded from awake monkeys that when two overlapping full screen gratings are counter-phased at different TFs, there is an asymmetric SSVEP response suppression, with greater suppression from lower TFs, which further depends on the relative orientations of the gratings (stronger suppression and asymmetry for parallel compared to orthogonal gratings). Here, we first confirmed these effects in both male and female human EEG recordings. Then, we mapped the response suppression of one stimulus (target) by a competing stimulus (mask) over a much wider range than the previous study. Surprisingly, we found that the suppression was not stronger at low frequencies in general, but systematically varied depending on the target TF, indicating local interactions between the two competing stimuli. These results were confirmed in both human EEG and monkey LFP and electrocorticogram (ECoG) data. Our results show that sensory interactions between multiple SSVEPs are more complex than shown previously and are influenced by both local and global factors, underscoring the need to cautiously interpret the results of studies involving SSVEP paradigms.

2022 ◽  
Yijia Wu ◽  
Xinhua Zeng ◽  
Kaiqiang Feng ◽  
Donglai Wei ◽  
Liang Song

Abstract With the rapid development of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), human visual decoding, one of the important research directions of BCIs, has attracted a substantial amount of attention. However, most visual decoding studies have focused on graphic and image decoding. In this paper, we first demonstrate the possibility of building a new kind of task-irrelevant, simple and fast-stimulus BCI-based experimental paradigm that relies on visual evoked potentials (VEPs) during colour observation. Additionally, the features of visual colour information were found through reliable real-time decoding. We selected 9 subjects who did not have colour blindness to participate in our tests. These subjects were asked to observe red, green, and blue screens in turn with an interstimulus interval of 1 second. The machine learning results showed that the visual colour classification accuracy had a maximum of 93.73%. The latency evoked by visual colour stimuli was within the P300 range, i.e., 176.8 milliseconds for the red screen, 206.5 milliseconds for the green screen, and 225.3 milliseconds for the blue screen. The experimental results hereby show that the VEPs can be used for reliable colour real-time decoding.

Boudewijn van den Berg ◽  
Hemme J. Hijma ◽  
Ingrid Koopmans ◽  
Robert J. Doll ◽  
Rob G. J. A. Zuiker ◽  

AbstractSleep deprivation has been shown to increase pain intensity and decrease pain thresholds in healthy subjects. In chronic pain patients, sleep impairment often worsens the perceived pain intensity. This increased pain perception is the result of altered nociceptive processing. We recently developed a method to quantify and monitor altered nociceptive processing by simultaneous tracking of psychophysical detection thresholds and recording of evoked cortical potentials during intra-epidermal electric stimulation. In this study, we assessed the sensitivity of nociceptive detection thresholds and evoked potentials to altered nociceptive processing after sleep deprivation in an exploratory study with 24 healthy male and 24 healthy female subjects. In each subject, we tracked nociceptive detection thresholds and recorded central evoked potentials in response to 180 single- and 180 double-pulse intra-epidermal electric stimuli. Results showed that the detection thresholds for single- and double-pulse stimuli and the average central evoked potential for single-pulse stimuli were significantly decreased after sleep deprivation. When analyzed separated by sex, these effects were only significant in the male population. Multivariate analysis showed that the decrease of central evoked potential was associated with a decrease of task-related evoked activity. Measurement repetition led to a decrease of the detection threshold to double-pulse stimuli in the mixed and the female population, but did not significantly affect any other outcome measures. These results suggest that simultaneous tracking of psychophysical detection thresholds and evoked potentials is a useful method to observe altered nociceptive processing after sleep deprivation, but is also sensitive to sex differences and measurement repetition.

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