fracture mechanisms
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Ajay Kumar ◽  
Rajesh Ghosh

This paper comprehensively reviews the various experimental and numerical techniques, which were considered to determine the fracture characteristics of the cortical bone. This study also provides some recommendations along with the critical review, which would be beneficial for future research of fracture analysis of cortical bone. Cortical bone fractures due to sports activities, climbing, running, and engagement in transport or industrial accidents. Individuals having different diseases are also at high risk of cortical bone fracture. It has been observed that osteon orientation influences cortical bone fracture toughness and fracture mechanisms. Apart from this, recent studies indicate that fracture parameters of cortical bone also depend on many factors such as age, sex, temperature, osteoporosis, orientation, location, loading condition, strain rate, and storage facility, etc. The cortical bone regains its fracture toughness due to various toughening mechanisms. Owing to these factors, several experimental, clinical, and numerical investigations have been carried out to determine the fracture parameters of the cortical bone. Cortical bone is the dense outer surface of the bone and contributes to 80%–82% of the skeleton mass. Cortical bone experiences load far exceeding body weight due to muscle contraction and the dynamics of motion. It is very important to know the fracture pattern, direction of fracture, location of the fracture, and toughening mechanism of cortical bone. A basic understanding of the different factors that affect the fracture parameters and fracture mechanisms of the cortical bone is necessary to prevent the failure and fracture of cortical bone. This review has summarized the advancement considered in the various experimental techniques and numerical methods to get complete information about the fracture mechanisms of cortical bone.

2022 ◽  
pp. 002199832110652
Osman Aydoğuş ◽  
Mehmet Turan Demirci

This study reveals the nano-hybridization effects of nano-graphene platelets (NGPs) and nano-silica (SiO2 nanoparticle), having different structural geometries on the mechanical properties, nano and micro-scale failure behaviors, and nanoscale fracture mechanisms of E-glass/epoxy composites. Tensile, three-point bending, and Charpy impact experiments were applied to determine the mechanical behaviors of 0.5 wt.% NGPs, 4 wt.% nano-silica and 0.5 wt.% NGPs + 4 wt.% nano-silica nanohybrid filled E-glass/epoxy and neat E-glass/epoxy composite samples. Failure of composite samples was examined by microscopy and SEM analysis. FTIR analyses were conducted to interpret the chemical and physical interactions between the nanoparticles and epoxy resin. Nano-hybridization exhibited the highest tensile strength and three-point flexural force for the composite samples. However, the NGPs filled nanocomposites also exhibited the best static tensile toughness and impact energy absorption. The experimental data showed that it was statistically significant as a result of the one-way ANOVA analysis. Remarkably, nano-hybridization of nano-silica and NGPs showed different fracture mechanisms at the nano and micro-scales.

2022 ◽  
Vol 213 ◽  
pp. 110299
Z. Dai ◽  
E. Tsangouri ◽  
K. Van Tittelboom ◽  
X. Zhu ◽  
F.A. Gilabert

2022 ◽  
Vol 1217 (1) ◽  
pp. 012011
A N Amir ◽  
H Ghazali ◽  
H Wang ◽  
L Ye ◽  
N A Fadi ◽  

Abstract A unidirectional carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminate is a composite material made up of strong parallel carbon fibres incorporated in a polymer matrix such as epoxy to provide high stiffness and strength in the fibre direction of the laminate. Unfortunately, the interlaminar or intralaminar plane of this material has a low resistance to damages as the fracture toughness of a unidirectional CFRP laminate is related to the energy dissipation during the orthogonal cutting. The aim of this study is on cutting a unidirectional CFRP along the longitudinal or transverse directions, characterizing orthogonal cutting forces and the related fracture energy. Orthogonal cutting is performed using braised carbide tools for a range of cutting depth of 10-100 ³m with a rake angle of 30° to quantify the cutting forces and to observe the fracture mechanisms. The fibre orientations have a significant impact on surface bouncing-back. For some fibre orientations, the energy balance model is applicable, deducting the reasonable value of fracture toughness due to high normal force (F t). Fibre subsurface damage and cutting forces during cutting are found to be strongly influenced by the cutting depth. The input energy of cutting is released in form of new surface energy, fibre breakage, high bending energy, and chip fracture energy.

Ryuji InaI ◽  
Hiroshi Saito ◽  
Koji Kameo ◽  
Tadashi Uozumi ◽  
Masaharu Iwamoto ◽  

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