scholarly journals Plug-in electric vehicle diffusion in California: Role of exposure to new technology at home and work

2022 ◽  
Vol 156 ◽  
pp. 133-151
Debapriya Chakraborty ◽  
David S. Bunch ◽  
David Brownstone ◽  
Bingzheng Xu ◽  
Gil Tal
Sunil Bhatia

This chapter documents the ethnographic context in which the interviews and participant observation were conducted for the study presented in this book. It also situates the study within the context of narrative inquiry and develops arguments about the role of self-reflexivity in doing ethnography at “home” and producing qualitative forms of knowledge that are based on personal, experiential, and cultural narratives. It is argued that there is significant interest in the adoption of interpretive methods or qualitative research in psychology. The qualitative approaches in psychology present a provocative and complex vision of how the key concepts related to describing and interpreting cultural codes, social practices, and lived experience of others are suffused with both poetical and political elements of culture. The epistemological and ontological assumptions undergirding qualitative research reflect multiple “practices of inquiry” and methodologies that have different orientations, assumptions, values, ideologies, and criterion of excellence.

Geographies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (1) ◽  
pp. 47-62
Ujjwal Das ◽  
Barkha Chaplot ◽  
Hazi Mohammad Azamathulla

Skilled birth attendance and institutional delivery have been advocated for reducing maternal, neonatal mortality and infant mortality (NMR and IMR). This paper examines the role of place of delivery with respect to neo-natal and infant mortality in India using four rounds of the Indian National Family Health Survey conducted in 2015–2016. The place of birth has been categorized as “at home” or “public and private institution.” The role of place of delivery on neo-natal and infant mortality was examined by using multivariate hazard regression models adjusted for clus-tering and relevant maternal, socio-economic, pregnancy and new-born characteristics. There were 141,028 deliveries recorded in public institutions and 54,338 in private institutions. The esti-mated neonatal mortality rate in public and private institutions during this period was 27 and 26 per 1000 live births respectively. The study shows that when the mother delivers child at home, the chances of neonatal mortality risks are higher than the mortality among children born at the health facility centers. Regression analysis also indicates that a professionally qualified provider′s antenatal treatment and assistance greatly decreases the risks of neonatal mortality. The results of the study illustrate the importance of the provision of institutional facilities and proper pregnancy in the prevention of neonatal and infant deaths. To improve the quality of care during and imme-diately after delivery in health facilities, particularly in public hospitals and in rural areas, accel-erated strengthening is required.

2021 ◽  
pp. 193229682110213
Stuart Chalew ◽  
Alan M. Delamater ◽  
Sonja Washington ◽  
Jayalakshmi Bhat ◽  
Diane Franz ◽  

Achieving normal or near-normal glycemic control as reflected by HbA1c levels in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) is important for preventing the development and progression of chronic complications. Despite delineation and dissemination of HbA1c management targets and advances in insulin pharmacology, insulin delivery systems, and glucose monitoring, the majority of children with T1D do not achieve HbA1c goals. In particular, African Americans are more likely not to reach HbA1c goals and have persistently higher HbA1c than Non-Hispanic Whites. Availability of pumps and other technology has not eliminated the disparity in HbA1c. Multiple factors play a role in the persisting racial disparity in HbA1c outcome. The carefully designed application and deployment of new technology to help the patient/family and facilitate the supportive role of the diabetes management team may be able to overcome racial disparity in glycemic outcome and improve patient quality of life.

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (11) ◽  
pp. 3147
Kiyoung Kim ◽  
Namdoo Kim ◽  
Jongryeol Jeong ◽  
Sunghwan Min ◽  
Horim Yang ◽  

Many leading companies in the automotive industry have been putting tremendous effort into developing new powertrains and technologies to make their products more energy efficient. Evaluating the fuel economy benefit of a new technology in specific powertrain systems is straightforward; and, in an early concept phase, obtaining a projection of energy efficiency benefits from new technologies is extremely useful. However, when carmakers consider new technology or powertrain configurations, they must deal with a trade-off problem involving factors such as energy efficiency and performance, because of the complexities of sizing a vehicle’s powertrain components, which directly affect its energy efficiency and dynamic performance. As powertrains of modern vehicles become more complicated, even more effort is required to design the size of each component. This study presents a component-sizing process based on the forward-looking vehicle simulator “Autonomie” and the optimization algorithm “POUNDERS”; the supervisory control strategy based on Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle (PMP) assures sufficient computational system efficiency. We tested the process by applying it to a single power-split hybrid electric vehicle to determine optimal values of gear ratios and each component size, where we defined the optimization problem as minimizing energy consumption when the vehicle’s dynamic performance is given as a performance constraint. The suggested sizing process will be helpful in determining optimal component sizes for vehicle powertrain to maximize fuel efficiency while dynamic performance is satisfied. Indeed, this process does not require the engineer’s intuition or rules based on heuristics required in the rule-based process.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Helena Ross ◽  
Ryan Dritz ◽  
Barbara Morano ◽  
Sara Lubetsky ◽  
Pamela Saenger ◽  

Bhuma Krishnamachari ◽  
Alexander Morris ◽  
Diane Zastrow ◽  
Andrew Dsida ◽  
Brian Harper ◽  

Teresa Lanzón Serra ◽  
Amelia Díaz Martínez

This work presents the evaluation of the stress symptoms associated to the task of caring for a dependent relative at home. The role played by variables such as type of caregiver (nurse/non-nurse), the relative dependency level, the number of hours per day dedicated to caring and the years the caregiver had been caring for the relative was studied. The sample was made up of 100 caregivers, and the variables associated to stress studied in the present work were intrusion, avoidance and activation. Results showed that non-nurse caregivers caring for a low dependency relative for a period of less than two years were those suffering a higher impact, with more symptoms associated to stress. Hours caring per day worked as a protective variable of stress, in that those caregivers dedicating a lower number of hours to caring had lower risk of suffering stress symptoms. These results clearly show the stressful impact of the first stages of dependency, even at the lowest level of dependency in a relative, on non-professional caregivers and highlight the need to provide strategies, similar to those shown by professional nurses looking after their own relatives, to reduce stress. This kind of intervention would prepare the caregiver for the future stages when the dependency level in the relatives and the effort caring for them would be higher.

1988 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. 2-6
Patrick Commins ◽  
James V. Higgins

This article examines possible future developments with particular references to the role of new technology and the implications for Europe's agricultural producers. The main proposition is that the maintenance of commercial viability will oblige producers to adopt innovations and new practices, but the most successful will be farmers with the greater economic resources and superior managerial abilities. The outcome will be increasing socio-economic differentiation within the EEC population of agricultural producers and an increasing proportion of farm output coming from the top 20 per cent of farmers in the Community.

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