mental illness
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2022 ◽  

Mental illness has been a favourite topic for authors throughout the history of literature, and, conversely, psychologists and psychiatrists like Sigmund Freud and Karl Jaspers have been interested in and influenced by literature. Pioneers within philosophy, psychiatry and literature share the endeavour to explore and explain the human mind and behaviour, including what a society deems as being outside perceived normality. This volume engages with literature’s multifarious ways of probing minds and bodies in a state of ill mental health. To encompass this diversity, the theoretical approach is eclectic and transdisciplinary. The cases and the theory are in dialogue with a clinical approach, addressing issues and diagnoses such as trauma, psychosis, bipolar disorder, eating disorders, self-harm, hoarding disorder, PTSD and Digital Sexual Assault. The volume has three parts. Chapters in Part I address literary representations of madness with a historical awareness, outlining the socio-political potentials of madness literature. Part II investigates how representations of mental illness can provide a different way of understanding what it is like to experience alternative states of mind, as well as how theoretical concepts from studies in literature can supplement the language of psychopathology. The chapters in Part III explore ways to apply literary cases in clinical practice. Throughout the book, the contributors explore and explain how the language and discourses of literature (stylistically and theoretically) can teach us something new about what it means to be in ill mental health.


Author(s):  
Yashaswini Kunjali Ajeeth Kumar ◽  
Adithya Kishore Saxena

In the present state of health and wellness, mental illness is always deemed less importance compared to other forms of physical illness. In reality, mental illness causes serious multi-dimensional adverse effect to the subject with respect to personal life, social life, as well as financial stability. In the area of mental illness, bipolar disorder is one of the most prominent type which can be triggered by any external stimulation to the subject suffering from this illness. There diagnosis as well as treatment process of bipolar disorder is very much different from other form of illness where the first step of impediment is the correct diagnosis itself. According to the standard body, there are classification of discrete forms of bipolar disorder viz. type-I, type-II, and cyclothymic. Which is characterized by specific mood associated with depression and mania. However, there is no study associated with mixed-mood episode detection which is characterized by combination of various symptoms of bipolar disorder in random, unpredictable, and uncertain manner. Hence, the model contributes to obtain granular information with dynamics of mood transition. The simulated outcome of the proposed system in MATLAB shows that resulting model is capable enough for detection of mixed mood episode precisely


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Andreas Rosén Rasmussen ◽  
Andrea Raballo ◽  
Antonio Preti ◽  
Ditte Sæbye ◽  
Josef Parnas

BackgroundAnomalies of imagination encompass disturbances of the basic experiential structure of fantasies and imagery that can be explored in a semi-structured way with the Examination of Anomalous Fantasy and Imagination (EAFI). We aimed (1) to examine the distribution of anomalies of imagination among different diagnostic groups and a group of healthy controls, and (2) to examine their relation with disorders of basic self, perceptual disturbances and canonical state psychopathology of the schizophrenia-spectrum (positive, negative and general symptoms).MethodsThe 81 participants included patients with schizophrenia or other non-affective psychosis (N = 32), schizotypal personality disorder (N = 15) or other mental illness (N = 16) and healthy controls (N = 18). The assessment encompassed EAFI, Examination of Anomalous Self-Experience (EASE), parts of Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms (BSABS) and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). For network analysis, the associations of EAFI with the other psychopathological variables were tested by Pearson's correlation coefficient and graphically represented using multidimensional clustering. Comparisons between correlations in the network were tested with Steiger's test.ResultsAnomalies of imagination aggregated significantly in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders compared to other mental illness and healthy controls with no difference between schizophrenia and schizotypal disorder. In the network analysis, anomalies of imagination were closely inter-connected with self-disorders. Although, the anomalies of imagination correlated moderately with perceptual disturbance and positive, negative and general state symptomatology, these dimensions aggregated separately and relatively distant in the network.ConclusionsThe results support that anomalies of imagination are highly characteristic of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and closely related to self-disorders.


2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (GROUP) ◽  
pp. 1-33
Author(s):  
Fayika Farhat Nova ◽  
Amanda Coupe ◽  
Elizabeth D. Mynatt ◽  
Shion Guha ◽  
Jessica A. Pater

A growing body of HCI research has sought to understand how online networks are utilized in the adoption and maintenance of disordered activities and behaviors associated with mental illness, including eating habits. However, individual-level influences over discrete online eating disorder (ED) communities are not yet well understood. This study reports results from a comprehensive network and content analysis (combining computational topic modeling and qualitative thematic analysis) of over 32,000 public tweets collected using popular ED-related hashtags during May 2020. Our findings indicate that this ED network in Twitter consists of multiple smaller ED communities where a majority of the nodes are exposed to unhealthy ED contents through retweeting certain influential central nodes. The emergence of novel linguistic indicators and trends (e.g., "#meanspo") also demonstrates the evolving nature of the ED network. This paper contextualizes ED influence in online communities through node-level participation and engagement, as well as relates emerging ED contents with established online behaviors, such as self-harassment.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Charlotte Reedtz ◽  
Eva Jensaas ◽  
Trine Storjord ◽  
Kjersti Bergum Kristensen ◽  
Camilla Lauritzen

Background:According to amended legislation implemented in Norway in 2010, personnel in healthcare services for adults are obligated to identify patients' minor children and to assess the family situation. Health personnel is also obligated to contribute to adequate support to families affected by parental mental illness or substance use disorders. The intention behind the amendment was to support and protect children of mentally ill parents, as they are at risk of developing problems of their own. The aim of the present study was to evaluate health personnel's practice during the years 2010-2020, more specifically; (a) to what extent children of patients with mental illness and substance use disorders are registered in patient records, and (b) to what extent activities relating to the assessment and support of patients' minor children are documented in patient records.Method:The participants in the study are patients admitted to Division for Mental Health and Substance Use at the University Hospital of North Norway in the years 2010–2020. The data was drawn from patient records during October 2021.Results:The registration of patients' minor children is considerably strengthened since the introduction of the new Norwegian Health Personnel Act in 2010, and estimates show that 56% of patients' minor children are identified. However, only 31% of cases where patients have identified minor children this result in health personnel performing activities to support the children.Discussion:Based on the rising proportion of identified minor children throughout the 10-year period, it seems evident that the dissemination efforts have contributed to the development of some new skills among health personnel. However, compared with the national estimation that 35% of mentally ill and substance abusing patients have minor children, a large proportion of children remains unidentified. After identification, there seem to still be a long way to go before minor children are systematically offered support. Different solutions to strengthen the implementation of new skills in clinical practice, to ensure the identification of minor children and provision of necessary support for them is discussed.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Aude Villatte ◽  
Geneviève Piché ◽  
Sylvie Benjamin

This participatory action research explores the perceived social support of youth whose parents have a mental illness during their transition to adulthood. Social support is an important protection factor during this developmental period, but few studies have explored how these young adults perceive their social support. Nor has any study assessed whether participation in a group-based participatory action research project could improve these youth's sense of support.Purpose: (1) identify which aspects of social support these youth spontaneously address when talking about their experiences in Photovoice workshops; (2) explore how participants view these types of workshops as a good way to improve their sense of social support and belonging.Methodology: Ten young adults (nine women and one man) between the ages of 18 and 25 who have at least one parent with a mental illness participated in Photovoice meetings in 2019. These group meetings aimed to explore and share their experiences as young adults whose parents have a mental illness. The testimonies were combined with data obtained from the abbreviated version of the Social Provisions Scale and the Scale of Social Belonging.Results: The quantitative results suggest that participants consider their social support levels to be high, but their qualitative statements highlight low level or absence of parental support in terms of emotional, informative or instrumental levels. They see themselves as an important source of support for their parent and discuss the importance of having other supports figures (romantic partner, employer, friends, sibling, etc.). Conversely, they have difficulty asking for help for various reasons (including fear of stigma). They consider that their participation in this Photovoice project allowed them to feel heard, supported and to develop a sense of belonging to a group.Discussion: To conclude, clinical issues to be considered for psychosocial intervention with young adults of parents with a mental illness are discussed.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262006
Author(s):  
M. Rasheduzzaman ◽  
Firoj al-Mamun ◽  
Ismail Hosen ◽  
Tahmina Akter ◽  
Moazzem Hossain ◽  
...  

Background Bangladeshi university students are considered to be highly suicide-prone compared to other populations and cohorts. However, no prior epidemiological studies have assessed the suicidality (i.e., past-year suicidal ideation [SI], lifetime suicide plan [SP], and lifetime suicide attempt [SA]) among Bangladeshi students, including the variables such as past-year stressful life events and family mental health history. This is arguably a major knowledge gap in the country. Therefore, the present study investigated the prevalence and associated risk factors for suicidal behaviors among Bangladeshi university students. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted utilizing a convenience sampling method among a total of 1844 university students between October and November 2019. Data were collected based on the information related to socio-demographics, perceived health-related questions, past-year stressful life events, family mental health history, and suicidal behaviors (i.e., SI, SP, and SA). Chi-square tests and binary logistic regressions were used to analyze the data utilizing SPSS statistical software. Results The prevalence of past-year suicidal ideation, lifetime suicide plans, and suicide attempts were 13.4%, 6.0%, and 4.4%, respectively. Females reported significantly higher suicidal behavior than males (i.e., 20.6% vs.10.2% SI; 9% vs. 4.6% SP; and 6.4% vs.3.6% SA). Risk factors for SI were being female, year of academic study, residing in an urban area, using psychoactive substances, experiencing both past year physical and mental illness, experiencing any type of stressful past-year life events, experiencing campus ragging (i.e., senior students abusing, humiliating and/or harassing freshers or more junior students), experiencing family mental illness history, and having family suicide attempt history. SP was associated with several factors including being female, year of academic study, using psychoactive substance, experiencing both past-year physical and mental illness, and experiencing any type of stressful past-year life events. Risk factors for SA were being female, year of academic study, using psychoactive substances, experiencing past-year mental illness, experiencing any type of stressful past-year life events, and having family suicide attempt history. Conclusions University students appear to be a vulnerable group for experiencing suicidal behaviors. The present findings warrant rigorous action and early intervention programs such as counseling and other mental health professional services by university authorities. Longitudinal studies are highly recommended involving countrywide representative samples.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Marc De Hert ◽  
Victor Mazereel ◽  
Marc Stroobants ◽  
Livia De Picker ◽  
Kristof Van Assche ◽  
...  

Background: Increasing clinical evidence suggests that people with severe mental illness (SMI), including schizophrenia spectrum disorders, bipolar disorder (BD), and major depressive disorder (MDD), are at higher risk of dying from COVID-19. Several systematic reviews examining the association between psychiatric disorders and COVID-19-related mortality have recently been published. Although these reviews have been conducted thoroughly, certain methodological limitations may hinder the accuracy of their research findings.Methods: A systematic literature search, using the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Scopus databases (from inception to July 23, 2021), was conducted for observational studies assessing the risk of death associated with COVID-19 infection in adult patients with pre-existing schizophrenia spectrum disorders, BD, or MDD. Methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS).Results: Of 1,446 records screened, 13 articles investigating the rates of death in patients with pre-existing SMI were included in this systematic review. Quality assessment scores of the included studies ranged from moderate to high. Most results seem to indicate that patients with SMI, particularly patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, are at significantly higher risk of COVID-19-related mortality, as compared to patients without SMI. However, the extent of the variation in COVID-19-related mortality rates between studies including people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders was large because of a low level of precision of the estimated mortality outcome(s) in certain studies. Most studies on MDD and BD did not include specific information on the mood state or disease severity of patients. Due to a lack of data, it remains unknown to what extent patients with BD are at increased risk of COVID-19-related mortality. A variety of factors are likely to contribute to the increased mortality risk of COVID-19 in these patients. These include male sex, older age, somatic comorbidities (particularly cardiovascular diseases), as well as disease-specific characteristics.Conclusion: Methodological limitations hamper the accuracy of COVID-19-related mortality estimates for the main categories of SMIs. Nevertheless, evidence suggests that SMI is associated with excess COVID-19 mortality. Policy makers therefore must consider these vulnerable individuals as a high-risk group that should be given particular attention. This means that targeted interventions to maximize vaccination uptake among these patients are required to address the higher burden of COVID-19 infection in this already disadvantaged group.


Author(s):  
Miao Yu ◽  
Shengli Cheng ◽  
Kenneth Po-Lun Fung ◽  
Josephine Pui-Hing Wong ◽  
Cunxian Jia

From existing empirical research, we identified that Chinese college students commonly experience stigma surrounding mental illness and found some factors that support them in resisting the stigma and achieving psychological health. However, less research provides qualitative data involving individual experiences and insights on mental illness within this group of college students. This study, based on ACE-LYNX (an internationally cooperative research-sharing project between China and Canada), was conducted in Shandong, Jinan, and aims to promote the mental health of college students by empowering interdisciplinary professionals and students. Through the research project, this study analyzed the materials from 24 focus groups, explored the understanding of mental illness and prevalence of mental illness stigma in Chinese colleges at the present time, administered a background questionnaire, and provided statistical support for some revealed themes. The final themes are as follows: mental illness is stereotyped as “severe, pathetic, and complicated”; the misconception of “visiting a psychological counselor is scary”; from public stigma to self-stigma; barriers deterring students from seeking help or accessing services; two sides of the same coin: peer support versus peer pressure.


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