agricultural producers
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Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 205
Lauren E. Parker ◽  
Ning Zhang ◽  
John T. Abatzoglou ◽  
Steven M. Ostoja ◽  
Tapan B. Pathak

Every decade, a suite of standardized climatological metrics known as climate normals are updated, providing averages of temperature and precipitation data over the previous 30-year period. Although some of these climate normals are directly applicable to agricultural producers, there are additional agroclimate metrics calculated from meteorological data that provide physiologically relevant information for on-farm management decisions. In this study, we identified a suite of energy-based agroclimate metrics and calculated changes over the two most recent normal periods (1981–2010 and 1991–2020), focusing on specialty crop production regions in California. Observed changes in agroclimate metrics were largely consistent with broader global warming trends. While most metrics showed small changes between the two periods, during the 1991–2020 period, the last spring freeze occurred ~5 days earlier as compared to the 1981-2010 period, contributing to a >6 day longer frost-free period in the Sacramento and Salinas Valleys; likewise an additional 6.4 tropical nights (Tn > 20 °C) occurred in the Coachella Valley during the 1991-2020 period. A complementary trend analysis of the agroclimate metrics over the 1981–2020 period showed significant increases in growing degree days across all agricultural regions, while significant increases in heat exposure were found for the Salinas and Imperial Valleys and over the Central Coast region. Moreover, summer reference evapotranspiration increased approximately 40 mm in California’s Central Valley during 1981–2020, with implications for agricultural water resources. Quantifying the shifts in these agroclimate metrics between the two most recent 30-year normal periods and the accompanying 40-year trends provides context for understanding and communicating around changing climatic baselines and underscores the need for adaptation to meet the challenge that climate change poses to agriculture both in the future and in the present.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 645
Jana Katunar ◽  
Marija Kaštelan Mrak ◽  
Vinko Zaninović

The aim of this research was to provide a better understanding of factors influencing the performance of (small) agricultural producers. Considering the importance of agricultural producers, not just for maintaining a steady supply of products but also for the preservation of the population (and cultural tradition) of rural areas, the development of sustainable agricultural business is a matter of public interest. This paper considers wine producers and their market channels, i.e., the factors influencing the relationship between wine producers and market intermediaries, by applying ideas taken from agency theory. We developed a conceptual model with our defined measure of agency costs as the mediator variable between multiple regressors and the firms’ financial and non-financial performance as regressions. We used the approach of Baron and Kenny to investigate whether agency costs act as a mediator variable. The data needed to test the proposed conceptual model were collected through questionnaires and contextual interviews with the Croatian wine producers (n = 124). We found that more self-reliance in the distribution process, supported by factors related to the bargaining strength, had a positive influence on wine producers’ performance. The results also support the assumption that agency costs act as a full mediator variable between a producer’s attributes and its performance.

Ruslana Sodoma ◽  
Tetiana Shmatkovska ◽  
Mykola Dziamulych ◽  
Nataliia Vavdiiuk ◽  
Nataliia Kutsai ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 42 ◽  
pp. 02017
Andrey Plakhin ◽  
Tatiana Kochergina ◽  
Maria Selezneva

In this study, the authors substantiate the relevance of the creation of agro-industrial parks as a network form of organizing the business of agricultural producers. Agro-industrial parks in modern conditions are becoming a kind of growth points for the innovative development of agricultural producers, providing accelerated growth in production and import substitution in order to achieve food security in the Russian Federation and its regions. The results of the study allow us to conclude about the growing interest in this form of business organization.

2022 ◽  
pp. 146-157
Luka Dániel

Topic of the study. During the harsh Stalinization from 1948 agriculture had to be collectivized while land was not nationalized by decree as the Bolsheviks did in Russia in 1917. The Soviet legal system was a pattern for jurists but the differences made the transition to “socialism” more rugged and controversial. The legal scholars had to interpret a situation which had to develop further to full “socialization”. In order to do that, a “cooperative law” and a “land law” had to be created and taught as part of “agricultural law”. Research questions and methods. Land law consisted of regulations regarding private farmers and collective agricultural producers (cooperatives, state farms etc.), theoretically in the whole research period. How did the agrarian, cooperative and land policy affect legal theory on land tenure system? What kind of scientific dispute emerged on this matter and how did the attempts of codification of land law affect legal education? Various types of sources were evaluated, for instance protocols of council meetings of the faculty of law of two universities, archival sources, articles and studies from authors who taught land law and took part in its debate and codification. Results and conclusions. Law was used as a tool to boost transformation, and the lawmakers and jurists faced a paradox situation in which there was a need of codification of land law and to make it independent from other branches of law. On the one hand, jurists argued like Gyula Eörsi and Miklós Világhy that civil law had primatus in the legal system and property relations had to be included in that part of legislation during the “transition period”. On the other hand, many jurists, for instance Iván Földes, Imre Seres claimed that cooperative law or/and land law were separated branches of law despite the fact that mass collectivization was not completed until the spring of 1961.

2021 ◽  
Vol 215 (12) ◽  
pp. 87-97
N. Guschenskaya ◽  
Marina Sumarokova ◽  
Alina Kovshova

Abstract. The purpose of the research is to comprehensively assess the resource potential of agricultural organizations in the Kurgan region to form the trajectory of their development and determine the contribution to agricultural production in the region. Methods. The study was based on the use of statistical and econometric methods for collecting, processing, modeling data. It is based on the assessment of the use of the following functional components of the resource potential: land, material and technical, personnel, innovation and financial. At the same time, the dynamic assessment for each subspecies of the resource potential gives an idea of the trend in the volume and level of resource use, and the stochastic assessment – to identify the relationship between the indicators of resource investment and their return. Results. The presented assessment of the existing relationships between the quantitative and qualitative indicators of the resource potential and its subspecies indicate, on the one hand, an acute shortage of certain types of resources, and, on the other hand, an increasing intensity of their use without a proportional level of return. The study allows us to conclude that it is necessary to develop levers for managing the resource potential of agricultural organizations based on the symbiosis of the needs of agricultural producers and the territory in which they operate. Scientific novelty. The research methodology allows combining several methods of assessing (dynamic and stochastic) in achieving the final result, as well as assessing the elasticity between the general level of resource productivity of agricultural organizations and indicators of the efficiency of using the main types of resources. This approach makes it possible to form a sequence of actions to ensure an increase in the level of development and use of the resource potential of agricultural organizations.

2021 ◽  
Vol 24 (7) ◽  
pp. 46-52
Talgat Salikhov ◽  
Sagyntay Elubaev ◽  
Marat Tynykulov ◽  
Gulzhanat Kapbassova ◽  
Anar Makhmutova

Potatoes are one of the most responsive crops for grooming techniques since in the period from seedlings before closing rows are easily suppressed by weeds that take away nutrients, water, light from it. The factor that causes high harm to potatoes is weed. By absorbing a large number of nutrients and moisture from the soil, weeds inhibit the growth and development of plants, reducing their potential productivity. The purpose of the study was to establish the effect of the timing of the introduction of bedding manure in conjunction with mineral fertilizers and planting density on the weediness of potato plantings. Studies were provided to identify the impact of the timing of bedding manure together with mineral fertilizers and planting density for weed planting potatoes. Experiments were laid by the systematic method with a tiered arrangement of variants in the experiment with a 3-fold repetition. We used cattle manure on straw bedding for autumn-winter harvesting. The following types of fertilizers were used: ammonium nitrate, double superphosphate, potassium chloride. Determination of the amount and biomass of weeds in potato plantings was carried out in the flowering phase and before harvesting. The application of manure was accompanied by an increase in the number and weight of weeds. Annual weeds predominated in potato plantings: Amaranthus retroflexus L., 1753 and Amaranthus blitoides S. Watson, 1877, Chenopodium album L. Chenopodium album L., 1753, Setaria P. Beauv, 1812 and Setaria viridis (L.) P. Beauv, 1812, Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) BEAUV., 1812 and others, perennials included Cirsium arvense (L.) SCOP. 1772 and Sonchus arvensis L., 1753, (Elytrigia repens (L.) DESV. ex NEVSKI, 1933 and others. Planting density also has a definite effect on the development of weeds. When manure was applied in autumn under the plow, the number of weeds increased in comparison with other options, where only mineral fertilizers were applied. The application of manure over frozen plow and in winter over snow leads to a slight decrease (2.3-2.5 pcs/m2) of weeds. The greatest number of weeds is observed during the spring application of manure for plowing the fall plow. Nevertheless, studies aimed at clarifying the composition and structure of weediness, the number and weight of weeds in potato plantings are of great practical importance for local agricultural producers. These data should contribute to the development of an effective weed control system and high yields of potatoes in the region

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (4) ◽  
pp. 1806-1812
Vladimir Ivanovich Gayduk

Currently, the Russian population's need for vegetables is satisfied due to domestic production only by 87percent (at a rate of at least 90percent), fruits and berries – by 40percent (at a rate of at least 60percent), and milk – by 84percent (at a rate of at least 90percent). The present work clarifies the defining role of agricultural production taking into account the calculated indicators of food security. The analysis of the population’s provision with basic foodstuffs has led to the need to strengthen the competitiveness of Russian agricultural producers. The article predicts managerial decisions that would allow improving the performance efficiency of economic entities on the example of the agricultural sector of the Krasnodar Territory. The article presents an automated system-cognitive analysis of the effect of various factors on the efficiency of agricultural organizations. The degree and areas of the influence of various factors were assessed using SWOT analysis based on empirical data, namely, financial and economic indicators of agricultural enterprises of the Krasnodar Territory. The results of the automated system-cognitive analysis confirmed that subsidies for reimbursement of part of the costs of purchasing agricultural machinery and equipment, as well as subsidies aimed at increasing the productivity of farm animals have a significant impact on profits in the production of livestock products. The problem of modernization of agricultural production is associated with the problem of information and consulting services of agribusiness. The article substantiates the necessity of preparing a spiral scheme of the food security model, as well as emphasizes the importance of establishing and developing various service-providing consulting centers.

N. Khomiuk ◽  
I. Tsymbaliuk ◽  
M. Voichuk ◽  
A. Grymak ◽  
I. Kravtsiv

The article considers land taxation as one of the tools to ensure the sustainable development of rural areas in the context of decentralization. Included land tax and rent for land plots of state and communal property and a single tax for agricultural producers as land tax payments has been proposed. It was found that the land fee is the second-largest source of tax revenues to local budgets. It was revealed that during 2009–2020 there is a tendency to increase revenues from land fees to local budgets of Ukraine. Emphasis is placed on the fact that there is an increase in rent payments by legal entities and individuals in parallel with a decrease in its share in the payment for land, which is caused by an increase in land tax revenues during the analyzed period by 4.5 times. It was found that the largest amounts of revenues from land fees are payments from legal entities (86–88 % of the total revenues). It was found that the number of revenues from land tax and rent for land plots of state and communal property paid by individuals increased 4.5 times, and the number of revenues from similar taxes from legal entities increased 3.6 times. As a result of the study, attention is focused on the fact that since 2015 the payment for land has been transferred from the status of a national tax to a local one. It is proved that to tax the regulation of agricultural land use and promotes the development of agriculture and rural areas in 1998, a fixed agricultural tax was introduced. It was found that the number of receipts of the single tax paid by agricultural producers in 2015 increased 17 times compared to 2014. The sharp increase is caused by the introduction of the annual indexation of the tax base for agricultural enterprises, and a threefold increase in tax rates is justified. To achieve the goals of sustainable development of rural areas, it is proposed to carry out such measures as the application of increasing coefficients for irrational use of agricultural lands, provision of benefits for organic agricultural producers, implementation of the full inventory of agricultural lands, improvement of normative monetary valuation of land use for land and/or the single tax of the fourth group for the implementation of measures for the protection and reproduction of land resources, which will increase employment in rural areas, overcome poverty, develop social infrastructure, ensure the livelihood of rural residents, food, economic and environmental security, reduce destructive effects on the environment, protection and reproduction of natural resource potential.

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