mortality rate
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
R. Ejaz ◽  
M. T. Ashraf ◽  
S. Qadeer ◽  
M. Irfan ◽  
A. Azam ◽  

Abstract COVID-19 is reported as an extremely contagious disease with common symptoms of fever, dry cough, sore throat, and tiredness. The published literature on incidence and gender-wise prevalence of COVID-19 is scarce in Pakistan. Therefore, the present study was designed to compare the distribution, incubation period and mortality rate of COVID-19 among the male and female population of district Attock. The data were collected between 01 April 2020 and 07 December 2020 from the population of district Attock, Pakistan. A total of 22,962 individuals were screened and 843 were found positive for RT-qPCR for SARS-CoV-2. The confirmed positive cases were monitored carefully. Among the positive cases, the incidence of COVID-19 was 61.7% among males and 38.2% among females. The average recovery period of males was 18.89±7.75 days and females were 19±8.40 days from SARS-CoV-2. The overall mortality rate was 8.06%. The death rate of male patients was significantly higher (P<0.05) compared to female patients. Also, the mortality rate was higher (P<0.05) in male patients of 40-60 years of age compared to female patients of the same age group. Moreover, the mortality rate significantly increased (P<0.05) with the increase of age irrespective of gender. In conclusion, the incidence and mortality rate of COVID-19 is higher in males compared to the female population. Moreover, irrespective of gender the mortality rate was significantly lower among patients aged <40 years.

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
W. Khan ◽  
A.A. Khan ◽  
J. Khan ◽  
N. Khatoon ◽  
S. Arshad ◽  

Abstract The COVID-19 is a contagious viral disease, was first emerged in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and became the whole world on alert. The mortality rate in top most countries in Asia with special reference to Pakistan has been focused. Since February 26 to September 2020 the total confirmed cases and mortality rate was measured through Wikipedia and the notable journals. Iran is the only country having highest number of deaths (5.73%) followed by Indonesia (3.77%) while Saudi Arabia shows the lowest number of deaths as 1.39%. In Pakistan the first case was confirmed in 26th February, 2020. The nCov-19 has closely related to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) hence SARS COV-2 was named. This virus is responsible for more than 33.9 million deaths in over all the world as of 20th September, 2020. The number of new cases is increasing time to time. Sindh province of Pakistan has reported the highest number of cases till September, 20, 2020 as compared to other parts of the country and has the highest number of death followed by Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Because of the person to person contact the disease is spreading rapidly. The individuals who has already infected with other diseases like cancer or diabetic etc. are vulnerable. The nCOV-19 is the most contagious due to its mode of transmission. There is still no vaccine is available for the treatment of disease caused by nCoV-2019. It is therefore the only option to control this pandemic is to adopt effective preventive measures.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Binbin Su ◽  
Yiran Wang ◽  
Yanhui Dong ◽  
Gang Hu ◽  
Yike Xu ◽  

PurposeDiabetes mellitus is emerging as an epidemic worldwide, and the incidence and prevalence of diabetes have drastically changed in China over the past 30 years, but data on its mortality rate are scarce. This study aimed to analyze the time trends of mortality rates among patients with diabetes in the rural and urban population in China between 1987 and 2019.MethodsThe research data come from China’s annual report on national health statistics and the Chinese Health Statistics Yearbook. Age-standardized mortality rates were calculated by using the direct method based on the World Standard Population from the WHO. Joinpoint regression analysis was employed to estimate the annual percent change and average annual percentage changes of mortality rates of diabetes mellitus.ResultsAn overall trend for increment in diabetes mortality was observed. The crude mortality rates and age-standardized mortality rates of diabetes for urban and rural residents in China showed a significant increasing trend between 1987 and 2019. Mortality due to diabetes in urban areas has been higher than in rural areas for 30 years. However, due to the rapid increase of rural diabetes mortality in the past decade, the gap between the two gradually narrowed. The age-standardized mortality rates of diabetes increased by about 38.5% in urban areas and 254.9% in rural areas over the whole study period. In addition, the age-standardized mortality rate of females with diabetes was higher than that of males, but this pattern began to change in urban areas in 2012. Finally, the age-standardized mortality rates in the elderly population in China are higher with a faster growth rate, especially in rural areas.ConclusionThe mortality rate of diabetes is on the rise in China. The rapid growth of the mortality rate of diabetes in rural areas leads to the reduction of the urban–rural gap. Male mortality rates in urban areas have surpassed those of women. At the same time, the mortality rate of diabetes showed obvious elder-group orientation. As China’s population ages, the burden of death and disability caused by diabetes and its complications will continue to increase. These results indicate that diabetes has become a significant public health problem in China. Such an effect increases the demand for strategies aimed at the prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus. In addition to the prevention and intervention of diabetes in high-risk groups, it is also necessary to establish diabetes screening networks to identify patients with mild symptoms. Early detection and timely intervention can effectively reduce the incidence and mortality of diabetes.

2022 ◽  
Mai Stafford ◽  
Hannah Knight ◽  
Jay Hughes ◽  
Anne Alarilla ◽  
Luke Mondor ◽  

Background Multiple conditions are more prevalent in some minoritised ethnic groups and are associated with higher mortality rate but studies examining differential mortality once conditions are established is US-based. Our study tested whether the association between multiple conditions and mortality varies across ethnic groups in England. Methods and Findings A random sample of primary care patients from Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) was followed from 1st January 2015 until 31st December 2019. Ethnicity, usually self-ascribed, was obtained from primary care records if present or from hospital records. Cox regression models were used to estimate mortality by number of long-term conditions, ethnicity and their interaction, with adjustment for age and sex for 532,059 patients with complete data. During five years of follow-up, 5.9% of patients died. Each additional long-term condition at baseline was associated with increased mortality. This association differed across ethnic groups. Compared with 50-year-olds of white ethnicity with no conditions, the mortality rate was higher for white 50-year-olds with two conditions (HR 1.77) or four conditions (HR 3.13). Corresponding figures were higher for 50-year-olds of Black Caribbean ethnicity with two conditions (HR=2.22) or four conditions (HR 4.54). The direction of the interaction of number of conditions with ethnicity showed higher mortality associated with long-term conditions in nine out of ten minoritised ethnic groups, attaining statistical significance in four (Pakistani, Black African, Black Caribbean and Black other ethnic groups). Conclusions The raised mortality rate associated with having multiple conditions is greater in minoritised ethnic groups compared with white people. Research is now needed to identify factors that contribute to these inequalities. Within the health care setting, there may be opportunities to target clinical and self-management support for people with multiple conditions from minoritised ethnic groups.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 41-48
Hidayatullah Hidayatullah ◽  
Shobihatus Syifak ◽  
Choirotussanijjah Choirotussanijjah

Background: Intracerebral hemorrhage or ICH or hemorrhagic stroke is caused by bleeding within brain parenchyma. Riskesdas reported that stroke patients in Indonesia experienced an increase from 7 permil in 2013 to 10.9 permil in 2018. Mortality rate for ICH is estimated 40% in 1 month and 54% in 1 year. Rumah sakit Islam Jemursari (RSI) is the only type B hospital in Wonocolo sub-district, Surabaya city. This study aimed to analyze the pattern of incidents and variations of ICH at RSI Jemursari Surabaya.Method: This was a descriptive observational study. Medical record data is collected  from 2017-2019. The data were obtained from medical records section of total number of ICH, gender, age and outcome of patients. Furthermore, data is analyzed and illustrated through a bar chart and the frequency of mortality is calculated.Results: Total ICH patients at Jemursari Hospital were 310 with 192 male patients and 118 female patients over 3 years. Meanwhile, the most groups experienced ICH were 45-64 years, followed by +65 age group. This is consistent with several epidemiological studies related to ICH, where the incidence of ICH increases with increasing age. The mortality rate for ICH patients, in the 2017-2019 periode, was around 23-30%.Conclusion: It can be concluded that male more susceptible to ICH than female subjects. Meanwhile, the mortality rate for ICH patients ranged from 23-30% in the 2017-2019 period. It is necessary to carry out further evaluation related to other data from the patient. So it could describe incidence rate as well as an overview of the ICH profile at RSI Jemursari.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Zhimin Liang ◽  
Xiaofan Deng ◽  
Lingli Li ◽  
Jing Wang

Aim: To compare the arthroscopy vs. arthrotomy for the treatment of native knee septic arthritis.Methods: Electronic databases of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library were searched for eligible studies. Retrospective comparative studies comparing arthroscopy or arthrotomy for patients with septic arthritis of the native knee were eligible for this review. The primary outcome was recurrence of infection after first procedure. The secondary outcomes included hospital length of stay, operative time, range of motion of the involved knee after surgery, overall complications and mortality rate,Results: Thirteen trials were included in this study. There were a total of 2,162 septic arthritis knees treated with arthroscopic debridement and irrigation, and 1,889 septic arthritis knees treated with open debridement and irrigation. Arthroscopy and arthrotomy management of the knee septic arthritis showed comparable rate of reinfection (OR = 0.85; 95% CI, 0.57–1.27; P = 0.44). No significant difference was observed in hospital length of stay, operative time and mortality rate between arthroscopy and arthrotomy management group, while arthroscopy treatment was associated with significantly higher knee range of motion and lower complication rate when compared with arthrotomy treatment.Conclusion: Arthroscopy and arthrotomy showed similar efficacy in infection eradication in the treatment of native septic knee. However, arthroscopy treatment was associated with better postoperative functional recovery and lower complication rate.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Rujun Liao ◽  
Lin Hu ◽  
Qiang Liao ◽  
Tianyu Zhu ◽  
Haiqun Yang ◽  

Abstract Background Continuous surveillance of death can measure health status of the population, reflect social development of a region, thus promote health service development in the region and improve the health level of local residents. Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture was a poverty-stricken region in Sichuan province, China. While at the end of 2020, as the announcement of its last seven former severely impoverished counties had shaken off poverty, Liangshan declared victory against poverty. Since it is well known that the mortality and cause of death structure will undergo some undesirable changes as the economy develops, this study aimed to reveal the distribution of deaths, as well as analyze the latest mortality and death causes distribution characteristics in Liangshan in 2020, so as to provide references for the decision-making on health policies and the distribution of health resources in global poverty-stricken areas. Methods Liangshan carried out the investigation on underreporting deaths among population in its 11 counties in 2018, and combined with the partially available data from underreporting deaths investigation data in 2020 and the field experience, we have estimated the underreporting rates of death in 2020 using capture-recapture (CRC) method. The crude mortality rate, age-standardized mortality rate, proportion and rank of the death causes, potential years of life lost (PYLL), average years of life lost (AYLL), potential years of life lost rate (PYLLR), standardized potential years of life lost (SPYLL), premature mortality from non-communicable diseases (premature NCD mortality), life expectancy and cause-eliminated life expectancy were estimated and corrected. Results In 2020, Liangshan reported a total of 16,850 deaths, with a crude mortality rate of 608.75/100,000 and an age-standardized mortality rate of 633.50/100,000. Male mortality was higher than female mortality, while 0-year-old mortality of men was lower than women’s. The former severely impoverished counties’ age-standardized mortality and 0-year-old mortality were higher than those of the non-impoverished counties. The main cause of death spectrum was noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), and the premature NCD mortality of four major NCDs were 14.26% for the overall population, 19.16% for men and 9.27% for women. In the overall population, the top five death causes were heart diseases (112.07/100,000), respiratory diseases (105.85/100,000), cerebrovascular diseases (87.03/100,000), malignant tumors (73.92/100,000) and injury (43.89/100,000). Injury (64,216.78 person years), malignant tumors (41,478.33 person years) and heart diseases (29,647.83 person years) had the greatest burden on residents in Liangshan, and at the same time, the burden of most death causes on men were greater than those on women. The life expectancy was 76.25 years for overall population, 72.92 years for men and 80.17 years for women, respectively, all higher than the global level (73.3, 70.8 and 75.9 years). Conclusions Taking Liangshan in China as an example, this study analyzed the latest death situation in poverty-stricken areas, and proposed suggestions on the formulation of health policies in other poverty-stricken areas both at home and abroad.

Novera Nirmalasanti ◽  
Hefni Effendi ◽  
Ririn Setyowati

African Swine Fever (ASF) is one of the  infectious diseases affecting swine with high mortality rate. Disease transmission occurs direct and indirect. Indirect transmission through feed, virus contaminated object and swill feeding produced by ships. Ships berthing in the port of Tanjung Priok mostly comes or transits from a country which ASF exist. Among those ships, some discharge their garbage and take over into the final dumping site without any further treatment. There are many institution and a third parties involved in garbage management in the port of Tanjung Priok. This research aims is to identify an obstacle, actors and strategies in managing garbage from the ships to prevent ASF spread in the port of Tanjung Priok using Interpretative Structural Modelling (ISM). The results of this research shows the biggest obstacle in managing garbage from the ships, in order to prevent ASF spread in the port of Tanjung Priok is the absence of standard operating procedures (SOP), The most important actor is Indonesia Port Corporation II and the most important strategy is develop an integrated SOP for ship waste management. is to develop an integrated SOP for ship waste management.  

2022 ◽  
pp. 014556132110685
Chia-Ying Ho ◽  
Shy-Chyi Chin ◽  
Shih-Lung Chen

Objectives Descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM) developing after deep neck infection (DNI) is a potentially lethal disease of the mediastinum with a mortality rate as high as 40% prior to the 1990s. No standard treatment protocol is available. Here, we present the outcomes of our multidisciplinary approaches for treating DNM originating from a DNI. Methods Between June 2016 and July 2021, there were 390 patients with DNIs admitting to our tertiary hospital. A total 21 patients with DNIs complicated with DNM were enrolled. The multidisciplinary approaches included establishment of airway security, appropriate surgery and antibiotics, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and intensive care unit management. The clinical variables were analyzed. Results Two patients died and 19 survived (mortality 9.5%). The patients who died had a higher mean C-reactive protein (CRP) level than did those who survived (420.0 ± 110.3 vs 221.8 ± 100.6 mg/L) (P = .038). The most common pathogens were Streptococcus constellatus and Streptococcus anginosus. From 2001 to 2021, the average mortality rate of studies enrolling more than 10 patients was 16.1%. Conclusion Multidisciplinary approaches, early comprehensive medical treatment, and co-ordination among departments significantly reduce mortality. Patients with severe inflammation and high CRP levels require intensive and aggressive interventions.

Chiara Natalie Focacci ◽  
Pak Hung Lam ◽  
Yu Bai

AbstractIndividuals worldwide are overwhelmed with news about COVID-19. In times of pandemic, media alternate the usage of different COVID-19 indicators, ranging from the more typical crude mortality rate to the case fatality rate, and the infection fatality rate continuously. In this article, we used experimental methods to test whether and how the treatment of individuals with different types of information on COVID-19 is able to change policy preferences, individual and social behaviours, and the understanding of COVID-19 indicators. Results show that while the usage of the crude mortality rate proves to be more efficient in terms of supporting policy preferences and behaviours to contain the virus, all indicators suffer from a significant misunderstanding on behalf of the population.

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