AbstractThe current understanding of osteoarthritis is developing from a mechanical disease caused by cartilage wear to a complex biological response involving inflammation, oxidative stress and other aspects. Nanoparticles are widely used in drug delivery due to its good stability in vivo and cell uptake efficiency. In addition to the above advantages, metal/metal oxide NPs, such as cerium oxide and manganese dioxide, can also simulate the activity of antioxidant enzymes and catalyze the degradation of superoxide anions and hydrogen peroxide. Degrading of metal/metal oxide nanoparticles releases metal ions, which may slow down the progression of osteoarthritis by inhibiting inflammation, promoting cartilage repair and inhibiting cartilage ossification. In present review, we focused on recent research works concerning osteoarthritis treating with metal/metal oxide nanoparticles, and introduced some potential nanoparticles that may have therapeutic effects.
Metal alloys have become a ubiquitous choice as catalysts for electrochemical hydrogen evolution in alkaline media. However, scarce and expensive Pt remains the key electrocatalyst in acidic electrolytes, making the search for earth-abundant and cheaper alternatives important. Herein, we present a facile and efficient synthetic route towards polycrystalline Co3Mo and Co7Mo6 alloys. The single-phased nature of the alloys is confirmed by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. When electrochemically tested, they achieve competitively low overpotentials of 115 mV (Co3Mo) and 160 mV (Co7Mo6) at 10 mA cm−2 in 0.5 M H2SO4, and 120 mV (Co3Mo) and 160 mV (Co7Mo6) at 10 mA cm−2 in 1 M KOH. Both alloys outperform Co and Mo metals, which showed significantly higher overpotentials and lower current densities when tested under identical conditions, confirming the synergistic effect of the alloying. However, the low overpotential in Co3Mo comes at the price of stability. It rapidly becomes inactive when tested under applied potential bias. On the other hand, Co7Mo6 retains the current density over time without evidence of current decay. The findings demonstrate that even in free-standing form and without nanostructuring, polycrystalline bimetallic electrocatalysts could challenge the dominance of Pt in acidic media if ways for improving their stability were found.
This paper aims to investigate the reusability of metal/metal oxide-coupled ZnO nanorods (ZnO NRs) to degrade rhodamine B (RhB).
ZnO NRs particles were synthesized by precipitation method and used to remove various types of metal ions such as Cu2+, Ag+, Mn2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, Cd2+ and Cr2+ ions under UV illumination. The metal/metal oxide-coupled ZnO NRs were characterized by scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance. The photodegradation of RhB dye by these metal/metal oxide-coupled ZnO NRs under UV exposure was assessed.
The metal/metal oxide-coupled ZnO NRs were successfully reused to remove RhB dye in which more than >90% of RhB dye was degraded under UV exposure. Furthermore, the coupling of Ag, CuO, MnO2, Cd and Ni particles onto the surface of ZnO NRs even enhanced the degradation of dye. The dominant reactive species involved in the degradation of RhB dye were •OH- and •O2−-free radicals.
The coupling of metal/metal oxide onto the surface of ZnO NRs after metal ions removal could affect the photocatalytic performance of ZnO NRs in the degradation of organic pollutants in subsequent stage.
A good reusability performance of metal/metal oxide-coupled ZnO NRs make ZnO NRs become a desirable photocatalyst material for the treatment of wastewater, which consists of both heavy metal ions and organic dyes.
Metal/metal oxide coupling onto the surface of ZnO NRs particles improved subsequent UV-assisted photocatalytic degradation of RhB dye.