alkali metal
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2022 ◽  
Vol 227 ◽  
pp. 107123
Dongxu Cui ◽  
Shiliang Wu ◽  
Sang Jun Yoon ◽  
Youn-Sang Bae ◽  
Bugae Park ◽  

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 470
Josip Požar ◽  
Marija Cvetnić ◽  
Andrea Usenik ◽  
Nikola Cindro ◽  
Gordan Horvat ◽  

The binding of alkali metal cations with two tertiary-amide lower-rim calix[4]arenes was studied in methanol, N,N-dimethylformamide, and acetonitrile in order to explore the role of triazole and glucose functionalities in the coordination reactions. The standard thermodynamic complexation parameters were determined microcalorimetrically and spectrophotometrically. On the basis of receptor dissolution enthalpies and the literature data, the enthalpies for transfer of reactants and products between the solvents were calculated. The solvent inclusion within a calixarene hydrophobic basket was explored by means of 1H NMR spectroscopy. Classical molecular dynamics of the calixarene ligands and their complexes were carried out as well. The affinity of receptors for cations in methanol and N,N-dimethylformamide was quite similar, irrespective of whether they contained glucose subunits or not. This indicated that sugar moieties did not participate or influence the cation binding. All studied reactions were enthalpically controlled. The peak affinity of receptors for sodium cation was noticed in all complexation media. The complex stabilities were the highest in acetonitrile, followed by methanol and N,N-dimethylformamide. The solubilities of receptors were greatly affected by the presence of sugar subunits. The medium effect on the affinities of calixarene derivatives towards cations was thoroughly discussed regarding the structural properties and solvation abilities of the investigated solvents.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Mikhail Padniuk ◽  
Marek Kopciuch ◽  
Riccardo Cipolletti ◽  
Arne Wickenbrock ◽  
Dmitry Budker ◽  

AbstractSearches for pseudo-magnetic spin couplings require implementation of techniques capable of sensitive detection of such interactions. While Spin-Exchange Relaxation Free (SERF) magnetometry is one of the most powerful approaches enabling the searches, it suffers from a strong magnetic coupling, deteriorating the pseudo-magnetic coupling sensitivity. To address this problem, here, we compare, via numerical simulations, the performance of SERF magnetometer and noble-gas-alkali-metal co-magnetometer, operating in a so-called self-compensating regime. We demonstrate that the co-magnetometer allows reduction of the sensitivity to low-frequency magnetic fields without loss of the sensitivity to nonmagnetic couplings. Based on that we investigate the responses of both systems to the oscillating and transient spin perturbations. Our simulations reveal about five orders of magnitude stronger response to the neutron pseudo-magnetic coupling and about three orders of magnitude stronger response to the proton pseudo-magnetic coupling of the co-magnetometer than those of the SERF magnetometer. Different frequency responses of the co-magnetometer to magnetic and nonmagnetic perturbations enables differentiation between these two types of interactions. This outlines the ability to implement the co-magnetometer as an advanced sensor for the Global Network of Optical Magnetometer for Exotic Physics searches (GNOME), aiming at detection of ultra-light bosons (e.g., axion-like particles).

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