alkaline media
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Abdul Hanan ◽  
Abdul Jaleel Laghari ◽  
Muhammad Yameen Solangi ◽  
Umair Aftab ◽  
Muhammad Ishaque Abro ◽  

Electrochemical water splitting is one of the promising way to enhance energy with less outflow. In this regard different electrocatalysts have been reported for Oxygen evolution reaction (OER) to get alternative of noble metal based electrocatalysts. In this work, we have introduced Cadmium-oxide/Cobalt-oxide (CdO/Co3O4) nanocomposite by co-precipitation chemical strategy with impressive OER performance in alkaline medium. Almost 310 mV overpotential value is required to achieve 10 mA/cm2 current density with Tafel slope value of 62 mV/Dec. The as synthesized nanocomposite has stability of 6h as its longer electrochemical performance

Minerals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 100
Ivica Ristović ◽  
Darina Štyriaková ◽  
Iveta Štyriaková ◽  
Jaroslav Šuba ◽  
Emilija Širadović

Flotation wastes are becoming a valuable secondary raw material and source of many metals and semimetals worldwide with the possibilities of industrial recycling. The flotation tailings contain oxide and sulfide minerals that have not been sufficiently stabilized and form acidic mine waters, which in turn contaminate groundwater, rivers, and reservoi6sediments. An effective way to recycle these mine wastes is to recover the metals through leaching. While the focus is on acid bioleaching by iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, alkaline leaching, and the removal of iron-containing surface coatings on sulfide minerals contribute significantly to the overall environmental efficiency of leaching. For this study, static and percolate bioleaching of copper from flotation waste at the Bor copper mine in Serbia was investigated in alkaline and then acidic environments. The aim of the study was to verify the effect of alkaline pH and nutrient stimulation on the bioleaching process and element extraction. A sample was taken from a mine waste site, which was characterized by XRF analyses. The concentration of leached copper was increased when copper oxide minerals dissolved during alkaline bioleaching. The highest copper yield during alkaline bioleaching was achieved after 9 days and reached 67%. The addition of nutrients in acidic medium enhanced the degradation of sulfide minerals and increased Cu recovery to 74%, while Fe and Ag recoveries were not significantly affected. Combined bioleaching with alkaline media and iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in acidic media should be a good reference for ecological Cu recovery from copper oxide and sulfide wastes.

Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 305
Anwar ul Haq Ali Shah ◽  
Sadaf Zia ◽  
Gul Rahman ◽  
Salma Bilal

Electronically conducting poly (aniline-co-2-hydroxyaniline) (PACHA), a copolymer of aniline and 2-hydroxyaniline (2HA), was electrochemically coated on gold substrate for methanol electrooxidation in alkaline media. The electrochemical behavior of PACHA coated gold electrode towards methanol electrooxidation was investigated via cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) for application in an alkaline fuel cell. Methanol electrooxidation was observed at two different electrode potentials depending on the concentration of the base. At the PACHA coated gold electrode, the methanol oxidation peak was observed at lower overpotential (at 0.19 V) in a solution of high base concentration (1.8 M NaOH), which was 30 mV lower than the peak for the uncoated gold electrode. In addition, the Faradic current Imax obtained on the PACHA coated electrode (20 mA) was two times higher as compared to the Faradic current Imax of the un-modified gold electrode (10 mA). In solution of lower base concentration (0.06 M NaOH), the electrooxidation of methanol became sluggish on both electrodes, as indicated by peak shifting towards positive potential and with reduced faradaic current (at 0.74 V on PACHA coated electrode; Imax 10 mA). The electrooxidation of methanol at both lower and higher electrode potentials was analyzed mechanistically and discussed in light of the literature. EIS results were interpreted using Nyquist and Bode plots. The charge transfer resistance was decreased and pseudo-capacitive behavior changed to conductive behavior when external applied potential was increased from 0.1 V to 0.4 V.

Mahmoud N. M. Yousif ◽  
Abdel-Rahman B. A. El-Gazzar ◽  
Hend N. Hafez ◽  
Ahmed A. Fayed ◽  
Ahmed ElRashedy ◽  

Abstract: This review describes different synthetic methods for the preparation of sulfonamides. Generally, sulfonamides are synthesized from sulfonyl chloride derivative and amino derivative. A series of sulfonamide derivatives 7a-c, 8a,b, 9, 10, 11a,b, 12 were synthesized in alkaline media by reaction of different amino compounds with p-toluene sulfonyl chloride. Different amino derivatives 13, 15, 17, 19, 21 react with p-tolyl sulphonylchloride to afford sulfonylamides 14, 16, 18, 20, 22. Different reactions of sulfonamide derivatives have been summarized. Generally, sulfonamide function group does not take part in any reactions, but there are other functional groups in the compound which make the reactions. Sulfonamides have different biological activities e.g. antibacterial activity, anticancer activity, urease inhibitory activity, radical scavenging activity, carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, non-competitive inhibitor of lactoperoxidase, antifungal activity, and anti-mycobacterial activity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2160 (1) ◽  
pp. 012007
Shuai Wang ◽  
Rui Zhao ◽  
Weidong Xue

Abstract The urgent demand for sustainable and clean energy has promoted the development of water splitting. Herein, metal borides assisted synthesis of graphene-based material (Ni-B/G) has been carried out by facile and fast microwave heating method and applied to hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in alkaline solution. The Ni-B combining with 2D graphene give rise to highly efficient HER performance with low overpotential of 187 mV at current density of 10 mA cm−2. In addition, it exhibits good stability and retains 76% of current density after continuous oxygen release. The excellent performance is ascribed to the synergetic effect of Ni-B and graphene. The Ni-B not only acts as initiator to adsorb microwave energy but also works as active centre of catalyst. The high conductivity and large specific area of graphene offer accessible contact between electrolyte and intermediates. Therefore, Ni-B/G indicates a promising candidate for HER in alkaline media.

Yang Qian ◽  
Xianlun Xu ◽  
Yi He ◽  
Lecheng Lei ◽  
Yanghong Xia ◽  

The main bottleneck of electrolytic water for hydrogen production in alkaline media is the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) involving four-electron transfer. Designing highly efficient OER catalysts is attractive to accelerate...

Nanomaterials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 118
Jingyuan Bai ◽  
Jin Zhang ◽  
Konrad Eiler ◽  
Zhou Yang ◽  
Longyi Fan ◽  

Ni-based bimetallic films with 20 at.% and 45 at.% Cu and mesostructured surfaces were prepared by electrodeposition from an aqueous solution containing micelles of P123 triblock copolymer serving as a structure-directing agent. The pH value of the electrolytic solution had a key effect on both the resulting Cu/Ni ratio and the surface topology. The catalytic activity of the CuNi films toward hydrogen evolution reaction was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in 1 M KOH electrolyte at room temperature. The Cu45Ni55 film showed the highest activity (even higher than that of a non-mesostructured pure Ni film), which was attributed to the Ni content at the utmost surface, as demonstrated by CV studies, as well as the presence of a highly corrugated surface.

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