scholarly journals High-scale random access on DNA storage systems

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Alex El-Shaikh ◽  
Marius Welzel ◽  
Dominik Heider ◽  
Bernhard Seeger

ABSTRACT Due to the rapid cost decline of synthesizing and sequencing deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), high information density, and its durability of up to centuries, utilizing DNA as an information storage medium has received the attention of many scientists. State-of-the-art DNA storage systems exploit the high capacity of DNA and enable random access (predominantly random reads) by primers, which serve as unique identifiers for directly accessing data. However, primers come with a significant limitation regarding the maximum available number per DNA library. The number of different primers within a library is typically very small (e.g. ≈10). We propose a method to overcome this deficiency and present a general-purpose technique for addressing and directly accessing thousands to potentially millions of different data objects within the same DNA pool. Our approach utilizes a fountain code, sophisticated probe design, and microarray technologies. A key component is locality-sensitive hashing, making checks for dissimilarity among such a large number of probes and data objects feasible.

2019 ◽  
Kevin N. Lin ◽  
Albert J. Keung ◽  
James M. Tuck

AbstractTechnological leaps are often driven by key innovations that transform the underlying architectures of systems. Current DNA storage systems largely rely on polymerase chain reaction, which broadly informs how information is encoded, databases are organized, and files are accessed. Here we show that a hybrid ‘toehold’ DNA structure can unlock a fundamentally different, dynamic DNA-based information storage system architecture with broad advantages. This innovation increases theoretical storage densities and capacities by eliminating non-specific DNA-DNA interactions common in PCR and increasing the encodable sequence space. It also provides a physical handle with which to implement a range of in-storage file operations. Finally, it reads files non-destructively by harnessing the natural role of transcription in accessing information from DNA. This simple but powerful toehold structure lays the foundation for an information storage architecture with versatile capabilities.

2019 ◽  
Kyle J. Tomek ◽  
Kevin Volkel ◽  
Alexander Simpson ◽  
Austin G. Hass ◽  
Elaine W. Indermaur ◽  

ABSTRACTThe extreme density of DNA presents a compelling advantage over current storage media; however, in order to reach practical capacities, new approaches for organizing and accessing information are needed. Here we use chemical handles to selectively extract unique files from a complex database of DNA mimicking 5 TB of data and design and implement a nested file address system that increases the theoretical maximum capacity of DNA storage systems by five orders of magnitude. These advancements enable the development and future scaling of DNA-based data storage systems with reasonable modern capacities and file access capabilities.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Peter Michael Schwarz ◽  
Bernd Freisleben

Abstract Background DNA is a promising storage medium for high-density long-term digital data storage. Since DNA synthesis and sequencing are still relatively expensive tasks, the coding methods used to store digital data in DNA should correct errors and avoid unstable or error-prone DNA sequences. Near-optimal rateless erasure codes, also called fountain codes, are particularly interesting codes to realize high-capacity and low-error DNA storage systems, as shown by Erlich and Zielinski in their approach based on the Luby transform (LT) code. Since LT is the most basic fountain code, there is a large untapped potential for improvement in using near-optimal erasure codes for DNA storage. Results We present NOREC4DNA, a software framework to use, test, compare, and improve near-optimal rateless erasure codes (NORECs) for DNA storage systems. These codes can effectively be used to store digital information in DNA and cope with the restrictions of the DNA medium. Additionally, they can adapt to possible variable lengths of DNA strands and have nearly zero overhead. We describe the design and implementation of NOREC4DNA. Furthermore, we present experimental results demonstrating that NOREC4DNA can flexibly be used to evaluate the use of NORECs in DNA storage systems. In particular, we show that NORECs that apparently have not yet been used for DNA storage, such as Raptor and Online codes, can achieve significant improvements over LT codes that were used in previous work. NOREC4DNA is available on Conclusion NOREC4DNA is a flexible and extensible software framework for using, evaluating, and comparing NORECs for DNA storage systems.

2019 ◽  
Xin Song ◽  
Shalin Shah ◽  
John Reif

AbstractWith impressive density and coding capacity, DNA offers a promising solution for building long-lasting data archival storage systems. In recent implementations, data retrieval such as random access typically relies on a large library of non-interacting PCR primers. While several algorithms automate the primer design process, the capacity and scalability of DNA-based storage systems are still fundamentally limited by the availability of experimentally validated orthogonal primers. In this work, we combine the nested and semi-nested PCR techniques to virtually enforce multidimensional data organization in large DNA storage systems. The strategy effectively pushes the limit of DNA storage capacity and reduces the number of primers needed for efficient random access from very large address space. Specifically, our design requires k * n unique primers to index nk data entries, where k specifies the number of dimensions and n indicates the number of data entries stored in each dimension. We strategically leverage forward/reverse primer pairs from the same or different address layers to virtually specify and maintain data retrievals in the form of rows, columns, tables, and blocks with respect to the original storage pool. This architecture enables various random-access patterns that could be tailored to preserve the underlying data structures and relations (e.g., files and folders) within the storage content. With just one or two rounds of PCR, specific data subsets or individual datum from the large multidimensional storage can be selectively enriched for simple extraction by gel electrophoresis or readout via sequencing.Abstract Figure

2019 ◽  
Vol 15 (01) ◽  
pp. 1-8
Ashish C Patel ◽  
C G Joshi

Current data storage technologies cannot keep pace longer with exponentially growing amounts of data through the extensive use of social networking photos and media, etc. The "digital world” with 4.4 zettabytes in 2013 has predicted it to reach 44 zettabytes by 2020. From the past 30 years, scientists and researchers have been trying to develop a robust way of storing data on a medium which is dense and ever-lasting and found DNA as the most promising storage medium. Unlike existing storage devices, DNA requires no maintenance, except the need to store at a cool and dark place. DNA has a small size with high density; just 1 gram of dry DNA can store about 455 exabytes of data. DNA stores the informations using four bases, viz., A, T, G, and C, while CDs, hard disks and other devices stores the information using 0’s and 1’s on the spiral tracks. In the DNA based storage, after binarization of digital file into the binary codes, encoding and decoding are important steps in DNA based storage system. Once the digital file is encoded, the next step is to synthesize arbitrary single-strand DNA sequences and that can be stored in the deep freeze until use.When there is a need for information to be recovered, it can be done using DNA sequencing. New generation sequencing (NGS) capable of producing sequences with very high throughput at a much lower cost about less than 0.1 USD for one MB of data than the first sequencing technologies. Post-sequencing processing includes alignment of all reads using multiple sequence alignment (MSA) algorithms to obtain different consensus sequences. The consensus sequence is decoded as the reversal of the encoding process. Most prior DNA data storage efforts sequenced and decoded the entire amount of stored digital information with no random access, but nowadays it has become possible to extract selective files (e.g., retrieving only required image from a collection) from a DNA pool using PCR-based random access. Various scientists successfully stored up to 110 zettabytes data in one gram of DNA. In the future, with an efficient encoding, error corrections, cheaper DNA synthesis,and sequencing, DNA based storage will become a practical solution for storage of exponentially growing digital data.

Polymers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (4) ◽  
pp. 631
Aleksander Cholewinski ◽  
Pengxiang Si ◽  
Marianna Uceda ◽  
Michael Pope ◽  
Boxin Zhao

Binders play an important role in electrode processing for energy storage systems. While conventional binders often require hazardous and costly organic solvents, there has been increasing development toward greener and less expensive binders, with a focus on those that can be processed in aqueous conditions. Due to their functional groups, many of these aqueous binders offer further beneficial properties, such as higher adhesion to withstand the large volume changes of several high-capacity electrode materials. In this review, we first discuss the roles of binders in the construction of electrodes, particularly for energy storage systems, summarize typical binder characterization techniques, and then highlight the recent advances on aqueous binder systems, aiming to provide a stepping stone for the development of polymer binders with better sustainability and improved functionalities.

2020 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Nathan Tessema Ersumo ◽  
Cem Yalcin ◽  
Nick Antipa ◽  
Nicolas Pégard ◽  
Laura Waller ◽  

Abstract Dynamic axial focusing functionality has recently experienced widespread incorporation in microscopy, augmented/virtual reality (AR/VR), adaptive optics and material processing. However, the limitations of existing varifocal tools continue to beset the performance capabilities and operating overhead of the optical systems that mobilize such functionality. The varifocal tools that are the least burdensome to operate (e.g. liquid crystal, elastomeric or optofluidic lenses) suffer from low (≈100 Hz) refresh rates. Conversely, the fastest devices sacrifice either critical capabilities such as their dwelling capacity (e.g. acoustic gradient lenses or monolithic micromechanical mirrors) or low operating overhead (e.g. deformable mirrors). Here, we present a general-purpose random-access axial focusing device that bridges these previously conflicting features of high speed, dwelling capacity and lightweight drive by employing low-rigidity micromirrors that exploit the robustness of defocusing phase profiles. Geometrically, the device consists of an 8.2 mm diameter array of piston-motion and 48-μm-pitch micromirror pixels that provide 2π phase shifting for wavelengths shorter than 1100 nm with 10–90% settling in 64.8 μs (i.e., 15.44 kHz refresh rate). The pixels are electrically partitioned into 32 rings for a driving scheme that enables phase-wrapped operation with circular symmetry and requires <30 V per channel. Optical experiments demonstrated the array’s wide focusing range with a measured ability to target 29 distinct resolvable depth planes. Overall, the features of the proposed array offer the potential for compact, straightforward methods of tackling bottlenecked applications, including high-throughput single-cell targeting in neurobiology and the delivery of dense 3D visual information in AR/VR.

Meng Qi ◽  
Tianquan Fu ◽  
Huadong Yang ◽  
ye tao ◽  
Chunran Li ◽  

Abstract Human brain synaptic memory simulation based on resistive random access memory (RRAM) has an enormous potential to replace traditional Von Neumann digital computer thanks to several advantages, including its simple structure, high-density integration, and the capability to information storage and neuromorphic computing. Herein, the reliable resistive switching (RS) behaviors of RRAM are demonstrated by engineering AlOx/HfOx bilayer structure. This allows for uniform multibit information storage. Further, the analog switching behaviors are capable of imitate several synaptic learning functions, including learning experience behaviors, short-term plasticity-long-term plasticity transition, and spike-timing-dependent-plasticity (STDP). In addition, the memristor based on STDP learning rules are implemented in image pattern recognition. These results may offer a promising potential of HfOx-based memristors for future information storage and neuromorphic computing applications.

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