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2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-24
Saman Froehlich ◽  
Saeideh Shirinzadeh ◽  
Rolf Drechsler

Resistive Random Access Memory (ReRAM) is an emerging non-volatile memory technology. Besides its low power consumption and its high scalability, its inherent computation capabilities make ReRAM especially interesting for future computer architectures. Merging computations into the memory is a promising solution for overcoming the memory bottleneck. To perform computations in ReRAM, efficient synthesis strategies for Boolean functions have to be developed. In this article, we give a thorough presentation of how to employ parallel computing capabilities of ReRAM for the synthesis of functions given state-of-the-art graph-based representations AIGs or BDDs. Additionally, we introduce a new graph-based representation called m-And-Inverter Graph (m-AIGs), which allows us to fully exploit the computing capabilities of ReRAM. In the simulations, we show that our proposed approaches outperform state-of-the art synthesis strategies, and we show the superiority of m-AIGs over the standard AIG representation for ReRAM-based synthesis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-22
Alexander Jones ◽  
Aaron Ruen ◽  
Rashmi Jha

This work reports a spiking neuromorphic architecture for associative memory simulated in a SPICE environment using recently reported gated-RRAM (resistive random-access memory) devices as synapses alongside neurons based on complementary metal-oxide semiconductors (CMOSs). The network utilizes a Verilog A model to capture the behavior of the gated-RRAM devices within the architecture. The model uses parameters obtained from experimental gated-RRAM devices that were fabricated and tested in this work. Using these devices in tandem with CMOS neuron circuitry, our results indicate that the proposed architecture can learn an association in real time and retrieve the learned association when incomplete information is provided. These results show the promise for gated-RRAM devices for associative memory tasks within a spiking neuromorphic architecture framework.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-25
Kazi Asifuzzaman ◽  
Rommel Sánchez Verdejo ◽  
Petar Radojković

It is questionable whether DRAM will continue to scale and will meet the needs of next-generation systems. Therefore, significant effort is invested in research and development of novel memory technologies. One of the candidates for next-generation memory is Spin-Transfer Torque Magnetic Random Access Memory (STT-MRAM). STT-MRAM is an emerging non-volatile memory with a lot of potential that could be exploited for various requirements of different computing systems. Being a novel technology, STT-MRAM devices are already approaching DRAM in terms of capacity, frequency, and device size. Although STT-MRAM technology got significant attention of various major memory manufacturers, academic research of STT-MRAM main memory remains marginal. This is mainly due to the unavailability of publicly available detailed timing and current parameters of this novel technology, which are required to perform a reliable main memory simulation on performance and power estimation. This study demonstrates an approach to perform a cycle accurate simulation of STT-MRAM main memory, being the first to release detailed timing and current parameters of this technology from academia—essentially enabling researchers to conduct reliable system-level simulation of STT-MRAM using widely accepted existing simulation infrastructure. The results show a fairly narrow overall performance deviation in response to significant variations in key timing parameters, and the power consumption experiments identify the key power component that is mostly affected with STT-MRAM.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 676
Vamsi K. Amalladinne ◽  
Jamison R. Ebert ◽  
Jean-Francois Chamberland ◽  
Krishna R. Narayanan

Unsourced random access (URA) has emerged as a pragmatic framework for next-generation distributed sensor networks. Within URA, concatenated coding structures are often employed to ensure that the central base station can accurately recover the set of sent codewords during a given transmission period. Many URA algorithms employ independent inner and outer decoders, which can help reduce computational complexity at the expense of a decay in performance. In this article, an enhanced decoding algorithm is presented for a concatenated coding structure consisting of a wide range of inner codes and an outer tree-based code. It is shown that this algorithmic enhancement has the potential to simultaneously improve error performance and decrease the computational complexity of the decoder. This enhanced decoding algorithm is applied to two existing URA algorithms, and the performance benefits of the algorithm are characterized. Findings are supported by numerical simulations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Alex El-Shaikh ◽  
Marius Welzel ◽  
Dominik Heider ◽  
Bernhard Seeger

ABSTRACT Due to the rapid cost decline of synthesizing and sequencing deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), high information density, and its durability of up to centuries, utilizing DNA as an information storage medium has received the attention of many scientists. State-of-the-art DNA storage systems exploit the high capacity of DNA and enable random access (predominantly random reads) by primers, which serve as unique identifiers for directly accessing data. However, primers come with a significant limitation regarding the maximum available number per DNA library. The number of different primers within a library is typically very small (e.g. ≈10). We propose a method to overcome this deficiency and present a general-purpose technique for addressing and directly accessing thousands to potentially millions of different data objects within the same DNA pool. Our approach utilizes a fountain code, sophisticated probe design, and microarray technologies. A key component is locality-sensitive hashing, making checks for dissimilarity among such a large number of probes and data objects feasible.

Electronics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 240
Beomjun Kim ◽  
Yongtae Kim ◽  
Prashant Nair ◽  
Seokin Hong

STT-RAM (Spin-Transfer Torque Random Access Memory) appears to be a viable alternative to SRAM-based on-chip caches. Due to its high density and low leakage power, STT-RAM can be used to build massive capacity last-level caches (LLC). Unfortunately, STT-RAM has a much longer write latency and a much greater write energy than SRAM. Researchers developed hybrid caches made up of SRAM and STT-RAM regions to cope with these challenges. In order to store as many write-intensive blocks in the SRAM region as possible in hybrid caches, an intelligent block placement policy is essential. This paper proposes an adaptive block placement framework for hybrid caches that incorporates metadata embedding (ADAM). When a cache block is evicted from the LLC, ADAM embeds metadata (i.e., write intensity) into the block. Metadata embedded in the cache block are then extracted and used to determine the block’s write intensity when it is fetched from main memory. Our research demonstrates that ADAM can enhance performance by 26% (on average) when compared to a baseline block placement scheme.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
Fayez Gebali ◽  
Mohammad Mamun

Physically unclonable functions (PUFs) are now an essential component for strengthening the security of Internet of Things (IoT) edge devices. These devices are an important component in many infrastructure systems such as telehealth, commerce, industry, etc. Traditionally these devices are the weakest link in the security of the system since they have limited storage, processing, and energy resources. Furthermore they are located in unsecured environments and could easily be the target of tampering and various types of attacks. We review in this work the structure of most salient types of PUF systems such as static RAM static random access memory (SRAM), ring oscillator (RO), arbiter PUFs, coating PUFs and dynamic RAM dynamic random access memory (DRAM). We discuss statistical models for the five most common types of PUFs and identify the main parameters defining their performance. We review some of the most recent algorithms that can be used to provide stable authentication and secret key generation without having to use helper data or secure sketch algorithms. Finally we provide results showing the performance of these devices and how they depend on the authentication algorithm used and the main system parameters.

2022 ◽  
Vol 1048 ◽  
pp. 198-202
K.M. Shafi ◽  
K. Muhammed Shibu ◽  
N.K. Sulfikarali ◽  
K.P. Biju

In this work, we fabricated ZrO2 based resistive random access memory by sol-gel spin coating technique and investigated its structural, optical and resistive switching properties. The X-ray diffraction pattern revealed that 400 °C annealed ZrO2 thin film has tetragonal structure. The optical band gap value of ZrO2 thin film obtained was 5.51 eV. The resistive switching behaviour of W/ZrO2/ITO capacitor like structure was studied. It was found that no initial electroforming process required for the device. The fabricated devices show a self-compliance bipolar resistive switching behaviour and have high on off ratio (>102). Our result suggests that solution processed ZrO2 has great potential to develop transparent and flexible resistive random access memory devices.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Xiaojuan Lian ◽  
Jinke Fu ◽  
Zhixuan Gao ◽  
Wang Ren ◽  
Xiang Wan ◽  

Phase-change random access memory (PCRAM) is widely regarded as one of the most promising candidates to replace Flash memory as the next generation of non-volatile memories due to its high-speed and low-power consumption characteristics. Recent advent of the blade-type PCRAM with low programming current merit further confirms its prospects. The thermoelectric effects existing inside the PCRAM devices have always been an important factor that determines the phase-transformation kinetics due to a fact that it allows PCRAM to have electric polarity dependent characteristics. However, the potential physics governing the thermoelectric effects for blade-type PCRAM device still remains vague. We establish a three-dimensional (3D) electro-thermal and phase-transformation model to study the influences of thermal boundary resistance (TBR) and device scaling on the thermoelectric effects of the blade-type PCRAM during its “RESET” operation. Our research shows that the presence of TBR significantly improves the electric polarity-dependent characteristics of the blade-type PCRAM, and such polarity-dependent characteristic is found immune to the scaling of the device. It is therefore possible to optimize the thermoelectric effects of the blade-type PCRAM through appropriately tailoring the TBR parameters, thus further lowering resulting power consumption.

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