Polymers
Latest Publications


TOTAL DOCUMENTS

12320
(FIVE YEARS 11694)

H-INDEX

75
(FIVE YEARS 53)

Published By Mdpi Ag

2073-4360
Updated Tuesday, 23 November 2021

Polymers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (22) ◽  
pp. 4033
Author(s):  
Alex Cushing ◽  
Tianyue Zheng ◽  
Kenneth Higa ◽  
Gao Liu

We report the effects of component ratios and mixing time on electrode slurry viscosity. Three component quantities were varied: active material (graphite), conductive material (carbon black), and polymer binder (carboxymethyl cellulose, CMC). The slurries demonstrated shear-thinning behavior, and suspension properties stabilized after a relatively short mixing duration. However, micrographs of the slurries suggested their internal structures did not stabilize after the same mixing time. Increasing the content of polymer binder CMC caused the greatest viscosity increase compared to that of carbon black and graphite.


Polymers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (22) ◽  
pp. 4027
Author(s):  
M. M. Abd El-Hady ◽  
Asmaa Farouk ◽  
S. El-Sayed Saeed ◽  
Saad Zaghloul

Medical textiles are one of the most rapidly growing parts of the technical textiles sector in the textile industry. This work aims to investigate the medical applications of a curcumin/TiO2 nanocomposite fabricated on the surface of cotton fabric. The cotton fabric was pretreated with three crosslinking agents, namely citric acid, 3-Chloro-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (Quat 188) and 3-glycidyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS), by applying the nanocomposite to the modified cotton fabric using the pad-dry-cure method. The chemistry and morphology of the modified fabrics were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, the chemical mechanism for the nanocomposite-modified fabric was reported. UV protection (UPF) and antibacterial properties against Gram-positive S. aureus and Gram-negative E. coli bacterial strains were investigated. The durability of the fabrics to 20 washing cycles was also examined. Results demonstrated that the nanocomposite-modified cotton fabric exhibited superior antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria than Gram-positive bacteria and excellent UV protection properties. Moreover, a good durability was obtained, which was possibly due to the effect of the crosslinker used. Among the three pre-modifications of the cotton fabric, Quat 188 modified fabric revealed the highest antibacterial activity compared with citric acid or GPTMS modified fabrics. This outcome suggested that the curcumin/TiO2 nanocomposite Quat 188-modified cotton fabric could be used as a biomedical textile due to its antibacterial properties.


Polymers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (22) ◽  
pp. 4029
Author(s):  
Kang-Wei Lo ◽  
Ya-Wen Lin ◽  
Ta-Wui Cheng ◽  
Kae-Long Lin ◽  
Wei-Ting Lin

This study used silicon carbide sludge (SCS) to prepare lightweight foaming geopolymer materials (FGPs) by the direct foaming method. Results showed that when the SCS replacement level was 10%, the bulk density of the lightweight FGPs with added foaming agent amounts of 0.5% and 2.0% was 0.59 and 0.49 g/cm3, respectively; at a curing time of 28 days, the lightweight FGPs with amounts of added foaming agent of 0.5% and 2.0% had bulk densities that were 0.65 and 0.58 g/cm3, respectively. When the SCS replacement level was 10%, and the amount of added foaming agent was 2.0%, the porosity ratio of the lightweight FGP increased from 31.88% to 40.03%. The mechanical strength of the lightweight FGPs with SCS replacement levels of 10% and 20% was 0.88 and 0.31 MPa, respectively. Additionally, when the amount of foaming agent increased to 2.0%, the thermal conductivity of the lightweight FGPs with SCS replacement levels of 10% and 20% were 0.370 and 0.456 W/m×K, respectively. When the curing time was 1 day, and the amount of added foaming agent was 0.5%, the reverse-side temperature of the lightweight FGPs with SCS replacement levels of 10% and 20% were 286 and 311 °C, respectively. The k value of the O2 reaction decreased from 2.94 × 10−4 to 1.76 × 10−4 because the reaction system was affected by the presence of SiC sludge, which was caused the reaction to consume O2 to form CO2. The results have been proposed to explain that the manufactured lightweight FGPs had a low thermal conductivity (0.370−0.456 W/m×K). Therefore, recycling of silicon carbide sludge in lightweight foaming geopolymer materials has potential as fire resistance material for the construction industry.


Polymers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (22) ◽  
pp. 4023
Author(s):  
Alžbeta Kuižová ◽  
Anna Kuzminova ◽  
Ondřej Kylián ◽  
Eva Kočišová

Raman spectroscopy is one of the most used biodetection techniques. However, its usability is hampered in the case of low concentrated substances because of the weak intensity of the Raman signal. To overcome this limitation, the use of drop coating deposition Raman spectroscopy (DCDRS), in which the liquid samples are allowed to dry into well-defined patterns where the non-volatile solutes are highly concentrated, is appropriate. This significantly improves the Raman sensitivity when compared to the conventional Raman signal from solution/suspension. As DCDRS performance strongly depends on the wetting properties of substrates, we demonstrate here that the smooth hydrophobic plasma polymerized fluorocarbon films prepared by magnetron sputtering (contact angle 108°) are well-suited for the DCDRS detection of liposomes. Furthermore, it was proved that even better improvement of the Raman signal might be achieved if the plasma polymer surfaces are roughened. In this case, 100% higher intensities of Raman signal are observed in comparison with smooth fluorocarbon films. As it is shown, this effect, which has no influence on the profile of Raman spectra, is connected with the increased hydrophobicity of nanostructured fluorocarbon films. This results in the formation of dried liposomal deposits with smaller diameters and higher preconcentration of liposomes.


Polymers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (22) ◽  
pp. 4030
Author(s):  
Ana C. Pinho ◽  
Ana P. Piedade

With the advances in new materials, equipment, and processes, additive manufacturing (AM) has gained increased importance for producing the final parts that are used in several industrial areas, such as automotive, aeronautics, and health. The constant development of 3D-printing equipment allows for printing multi-material systems as sandwich specimens using, for example, double-nozzle configurations. The present study aimed to compare the mechanical behavior of multi-material specimens that were produced using a double-nozzle 3D printer. The materials that were included in this study were the copolymer acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), high-impact polystyrene (HIPS), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU). The configuration of the sandwich structures consisted of a core of TPU and the outer skins made of one of the other three materials. The mechanical behavior was evaluated through three-point bending (3PB) and transverse impact tests and compared with mono-material printed specimens. The effect of aging in artificial saliva was evaluated for all the processed materials. The main conclusion of this study was that the aging process did not significantly alter the mechanical properties for mono-materials, except for PMMA, where the maximum flexural stress decreased. In the sandwich structures, the TPU core had a softening effect, inducing a significant increase in the resilience and resistance to transverse impact. The obtained results are quite promising for applications in biomedical devices, such as protective mouthguards or teeth aligners. In these specific applications, the changes in the mechanical properties with time and with the contact of saliva assume particular importance.


Polymers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (22) ◽  
pp. 4034
Author(s):  
Mohamed Abbas Ibrahim ◽  
Doaa Hasan Alshora

Aceclofenac (AC) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used in the treatment of chronic pain in conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, with frequent administration during the day. The formulation of sustained release matrix pellets can provide a promising alternative dosage form that controls the release of the drug, with less blood fluctuation and side effects—especially those related to the gastric system. The extrusion/spheronization technique was used to formulate AC matrix pellets. The response surface methodology (version 17.2.02.; Statgraphics Centurion) was used to study the impacts of Eudragit RL 100 and PVP K90 binder solution concentrations on the pellets’ wet mass peak torque, pellet size, and the release of the drug. Statistically, a significant synergistic effect of PVP K90 concentration on the peak torque and pellet size was observed (p = 0.0156 and 0.031, respectively), while Eudragit RL 100 showed significant antagonistic effects (p = 0.042 and 0.013, respectively). The peak torque decreased from 0.513 ± 0.022 to 0.41 ± 0.021 when increasing the Eudragit RL 100 from 0 to 20%, and the pellet size decreased from 0.914 ± 0.047 to 0.789 ± 0.074 nm. The tested independent factors did not significantly affect the drug release in the acidic medium within 2 h, but these pellet formulae maintained the drug release at less than 10% in the acidic medium (pH 1.2), which may decrease gastric irritation side effects. In contrast, a highly significant synergistic effect of Eudragit and highly antagonistic effect of the PVP solution on drug release in the alkaline-pH medium were observed (p = 0.002 and 0.007, respectively). The optimized pellet formula derived from the statistical program, composed of 3.21% Eudragit and 5% PVP solution, showed peak torque of 0.861 ± 0.056 Nm and pellet size of 1090 ± 85 µm, and resulted in a significant retardation effect on the release after 8 h compared to the untreated drug.


Polymers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (22) ◽  
pp. 4024
Author(s):  
Polina Tyubaeva ◽  
Ivetta Varyan ◽  
Anton Lobanov ◽  
Anatoly Olkhov ◽  
Anatoly Popov

The creation of innovative fibrous materials based on biodegradable semicrystalline polymers and modifying additives is an urgent scientific problem. In particular, the development of biomedical materials based on molecular complexes and biopolymers with controlled properties is of great interest. The paper suggests an approach to modifying the structure and properties of the composite materials based on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) obtained by the electrospinning method using molecular complexes of hemin. The introduction of 1–5 wt. % of hemin has a significant effect on the supramolecular structure, morphology and properties of PHB-based fibers. Changes in the supramolecular structure intensified with the increasing hemin concentration. On the one hand, a decrease in the fraction of the crystalline phase by 8–10% was observed. At the same time, there is a decrease in the density of the amorphous phase by 15–70%. Moreover, the addition of hemin leads to an improvement in the strength characteristics of the material: the elongation at break increased by 1.5 times, and in the tensile strength, it increased by 3 times. The antimicrobial activity of the hemin-containing composite materials against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was confirmed. The obtained materials are proposed to be used in the creation of composite systems for regenerative medicine.


Polymers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (22) ◽  
pp. 4028
Author(s):  
Chi Gong ◽  
Zhiyuan Kong ◽  
Xiaohong Wang

In three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting, the accuracy, stability, and mechanical properties of the formed structure are very important to the overall composition and internal structure of the complex organ. In traditional 3D bioprinting, low-temperature gelatinization of gelatin is often used to construct complex tissues and organs. However, the hydrosol relies too much on the concentration of gelatin and has limited formation accuracy and stability. In this study, we take advantage of the physical crosslinking of agarose at 35–40 °C to replace the single pregelatinization effect of gelatin in 3D bioprinting, and printing composite gelatin/alginate/agarose hydrogels at two temperatures, i.e., 10 °C and 24 °C, respectively. After in-depth research, we find that the structures manufactured by the pregelatinization method of agarose are significantly more accurate, more stable, and harder than those pregelatined by gelatin. We believe that this research holds the potential to be widely used in the future organ manufacturing fields with high structural accuracy and stability.


Polymers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (22) ◽  
pp. 4026
Author(s):  
Alexey V. Dubrovskii ◽  
Aleksandr L. Kim ◽  
Egor V. Musin ◽  
Bulat R. Ramazanov ◽  
Sergey A. Tikhonenko

Polyelectrolyte microcapsules, which are obtained by the method of alternate adsorption of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes onto colloidal particles of micron size, are widely used in science and industry. Nevertheless, the properties of microcapsules are still poorly understood. In particular, there is no information in the literature on the buffer capacity. However, information on the presence of a buffer capacity and an understanding of its mechanisms can both simplify the use of microcapsules and expand the scope of their application. In this regard, the buffer capacity of various types of microcapsules was studied. It was found that polyelectrolyte microcapsules consisting of polyallylamine, and polystyrene sulfonate have a buffer capacity. In addition, in an acidic medium, the buffer capacity of microcapsules containing BSA is significantly greater than that of microcapsules without protein. This is due to the fact that BSA contributes to the buffering of microcapsules. Differences in the behaviour of the buffer capacity of microcapsules with the composition (PAH/PSS)3 and (PSS/PAH)3 were found. In addition, a hypothesis has been proposed that regions of unbound polyallylamine are responsible for the buffering properties of polyelectrolyte microcapsules. This hypothesis is confirmed by the fact that incubation of microcapsules in 0.5 M NaCl increases the amount of unbound polyallylamine, which leads to an increase in the buffer capacity of microcapsules at alkaline pH values higher than the buffer capacity of capsules in an aqueous solution.


Polymers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (22) ◽  
pp. 4031
Author(s):  
Jeanne Silvestre ◽  
Cédric Delattre ◽  
Philippe Michaud ◽  
Hélène de Baynast

Chitosan is a bio-sourced polysaccharide widely used in different fields from health to wastewater treatment through food supplements. Another important use of this polymer is adhesion. Indeed, the current demand to replace non-natural and hazardous polymers by greener ones is well present in the adhesive field and open good opportunities for chitosan and its derivatives. However, chitosan is water soluble and exhibits a poor water-resistance in the field of adhesion which reduces the possibilities of its utilization within the paste field. This review focuses on exploration of different ways available to modify the chitosan and transform it into a water-resistant adhesive. The first part concerns the chitosan itself and gives important information from the discovery of chitin to the pure chitosan ready to use. The second part reviews the background information relative to adhesion theories, ideal properties of adhesives and the characteristics of chitosan as an adhesive. The last part focuses on exploration of the possible modification of chitosan to make it a water-resistant chemical adhesive.


Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document